1. Ch1-#1.) What r the 4 steps in "building the gap" between current client health & fitness levels & their future goals & needs? What is the difference between implicit and explicit goals?
    1.) assess 2.) design 3.)Instruct 4.)Re-assess...Explicit-goal which the client says...Implicit- goal not necessarily said.
  2. Ch.2#2.)What is the kinectic chain? What is its function?
    A chain that links together to create human movement. Comprised of Nervous, Muscular, Skeletal System
  3. Ch.2#3.) What is the difference between smooth,cardia and skeletal muscle?
    • Smooth- Involutary
    • Skeletal- Voluntary
    • Cardia- Heart
  4. Ch.2#4.) What are the 3 layers of fascia? What is their significance?
    Epimysium- Outermost layer, is continous (becomes one) w/ the endomysium and perimysium-> forms tendons that become continous w/ periosteum (outer layer of bone) makes muscle bone strong.

    Permysium/Fascicul- fibers in bundles

    Endomysium- Innermost layer, surrounds individual muscle fibers. Surround,Protect & enable innervation of muscle fibers(muscle cells)within a muscle.
  5. Ch.2 #5.) What is the structure of the motor unit?
    What is the sliding filament theory?
    • Motor Unit- a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it activates.
    • =Motor Neuron->Motor Endoplates->Muscle fibers

    Sliding Filament Theory- the sacromere is composed of thin & thick filaments.= These elements will slide over each other & the action of all the sacromeres shortening together causes the muscle to contract.
  6. Ch.2#6.) What r the various roles of muscle?
    Be able to identify various roles during movement.
    • Prime Mover or Agonist: Muscle that brings a desired movement through concentric muscle action.
    • Assistant Mover or Synergist: Muscle that assist Indirectly to bring desired movement.
    • Antagonist: Muscle responsible for Opposing the concentric muscle action of Agonisty(more suseptible to injury)
    • Stabilizer: Muscle responsible for stabilizing Adjacent Segment
    • Neutralizer: Muscle responsible eliminating or canceling an undesired movement
  7. Ch.2#7.) Know the difference between Eccentric, Isometric and Concentric muscle actions.
    Which is the "Strongest"?
    Which is the "Weakest"?
    What is the difference between hypertrophy,hyperplasia and atrophy?
    • Eccentric: Muscle actively Lengthing
    • Concentric: Muscle actively Shortening
    • Isometric: Muscle held at a fixed length.

    • Eccentric: Strongest
    • Concentric: Weakest

    • Hypertrophy: increase size of muscle/increase size myofibrils inside muscle fibers
    • Hyperplasia: increase size of muscle cells w/corresponding increase in size.
    • Atrophy: loss of muscle tissue, resulting from disease or lack of use
  8. Ch.2.#8.) What are the 3 different skeletal muscle types?
    Be able to identify which type is dominant in an exercise.
    • Muscle Fiber types- Type I Fiber- Red slow twitch,aerobic fibers
    • fatigue resisitant, enhance xygen delievery
    • Endurance longer then 3mins
    • type IIA- pink, Fast twitch moderately
    • traits of both Type IIB and TypeI
    • Excels in activites lasts between30-2min
    • TypeIIB- White,fast twitch, anaerobic fibers
    • suited for brief, powerful contractions
    • highly explosive activities/lifts,sprinting,jumping-best hypertrophy potential
  9. Ch.2 #9.) What are the various types of strength?
    Be able to identify exercises which emphasize a particular strength
    What factors contribute to muscle soreness?
    Look at notes*
  10. Ch.2 #10.) What are the basic structure and function of joints?
    What are the different types of diathrodial joints?
    Be able to give examplesof each.
    What is the Epiphyseal Plate?
    What is Epiphyseal Plate slippage?
    See notes* Ch.2 #10
  11. Ch.2 #11.) 1. What is ATP?
    2. What are the 3 different energy systems?
    3. Lactic acid is a by-product of what energy sytem?
    4. What is "aerobic exercise"?
    • 1.ATP- Adenosine Triphosphate: is the source of all energy for all muscular contractions.
    • 2. Creatine phosphate
    • Glycolysis (breakdown of glucose)
    • Aerobic Oxidation
    • 3. Anaerobis Glycolysis/Metabolism
    • 4. "with oxygen"
  12. Ch.2 #12.) 1.How does blood flow through the body?
    2.What is the basic structure of the Heart?
    • 1. See notes*
    • 2. 2 seperate pumping organs: 1. The right side for pulmonary circulation(body to lungs)
    • 2. Left side-systemic circulation (from lungs to body)
  13. Ch.2 #13.) 1. What is blod pressure?
    2. What are the different phases?
    3. What is considered Normal?
    4. What is considered High?
    5. What is the Valsalva Maneuver?
    6. What hapens when exercise is abruptly stopped?
    • 1. A measure of force blood excerts on the walls of the blood vessels.
    • 2. See notes*
    • 3, 120/80 mm/hg
    • 4. 140/90 and up
    • 5. holding breath/ blood pressure decreases---muscular power is briefly obtained as all muscles of the body voluntarily tense making it hard to breathe.
    • 6. Blood pools in extremities is slow to return to the heart and brain leaving the individual feeling light headed or dizzy.
  14. Ch. 2 #14.) 1.What is RHR?THR?HRH?MHR?
    2. How is each determined?
    3. Be able to use the Karvonen Equation
    • 1. RHR: Resting heart rate THR: target heart rate HRR: heart rate reserve MHR: Maxium heart rate
    • 2. see notes:
    • 3. see notes
  15. Ch.2 #15.) 1.What is overeaching?
    2. Overtraing?
    3. Detraining?
    • 1. State where a few days of rest or light exercise enables the body to recover & return to a normal physiological state
    • 2. State of fatigue or physiological malfunctioning where it may take weeks,months, or years to return to a normal physiological state & be able to progress & improve signicantly.
    • 3. Diminishing physiological capacity as training becomes infrequent or ceases all togeher. 2-3 weeks of no training.
  16. Ch.2 #16.) 1.What is the most efficent way to breath?
    2. How does high altitude affect breathing?
    3. In most cases, should one exhale or inhale on the exertion phase of an exercise?
    • 1. Breathing should be long and even, not short and quick while exerting physically/Diaphragm brathing.
    • 2. Partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere declines,making it more difficult to get sufficent oxygen to diffuse into the capillaries.
    • 3. Exhale
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