chapter 17

  1. transcription
    the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
  2. translation
    the synthesis of a polypeptide which occurs under the direction of mRNA. The cell translates the base sequence of an mRNA molecule into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Done in ribosomes.
  3. the number of nucleotides making up a genetic message must be _____ the number of amino acids in the protein product
    three times
  4. on DNA 3'-ACC-5' will be transcribed as ___ on the mRNA molecule
  5. codons
    mRNA base triplets, read in 5' to 3' direction
  6. Amino acid methionine and and a start signal for ribosomes to begin translating the mRNA at that point
    5'-AUG-3' genetic messages begin here
  7. stop codons
  8. redundancy v ambiguity
    redundancy yes, different codons can create the same amino acid, but one codon will never create different amino acids
  9. what polypeptide product would you expect fro a poly-G mRNA that is 30 nucleotides long?
  10. the template strand of a gene contains the sequence 3'-TTCAGTCGT-5'. Draw the nontemplate sequence and the mRNA sequence.
    nontemplate: 5'-AAGTCAGCA-3', mRNA sequence: 5'-AAGUCAGCA-3'
  11. RNA polymerase
    pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins the RNA nucleotides as they base-pair along the DNA template. 5' to 3'
  12. the DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription
    promotor, also determines which strand is a template
  13. downstream and upstream
    "downstream" is direction of transcription. So, the promotor sequence is upstream from the terminator.
  14. transcription unit
    the stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
  15. Initiation
    after RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind, and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand
  16. Elongation
    the polumerase moves downstream, unwindng the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5'-3'. In the wake of transcription, the DNA strands re-form a double helix.
  17. Termination
    Eventually, the RNA transcript is released, and the polymerase detaches from the DNA
  18. transcription factors
    a collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription. Then RNA polymerase II can bind to it.
  19. transcription initiation complex
    the whole complex of transcription factors and RNA polymerase II bound to the promoter. Moves down and pries them open and RNA synthesis begins.
  20. TATA box
    nucleotide sequence containing TATA, upstream from transciptional start point. Signals the transcription factors to bind before RNA Polymerase II
  21. compare and contrast DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase
    • both assemble nucleic acid chains from onomer nucleotides whose order is
    • determined by complementary base pairing to a template strand. Both
    • synthesize in the 5'-3' directin, antiparallel to the template. DNA
    • polymerase requires a primer, but RNA polymerase can start a nucleotide
    • chain from scratch. DNA polymerase uses nucleotides with the sugear
    • deoxyribose and the base T, whereas RNA polymerase uses nucleotides with
    • the sugar ribose and the base U.
  22. What is a promoter, and is it located at the upstream or downstream end f a transcription unit?
    promoter is the region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to begin transcriptin, and it is at the upstream end of the gene/transcription unit
  23. What makes RNA polymerase start transcribing a gene at the right place on the DNA in a bacterial cell? Eukaryotic cell?
    In a bacterial cell, RNA polymerase recognizes the gene's promoter and binds to it. In a eukaryotic cell, transcription factor mediate the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter
  24. RNA processing
    the modifying of pre-mRNA, in which both ends of the primary trancript are altered before exiting the nucleus
  25. A modified form of a guanine nucleotidde added into the 5' end after transcription
    5' hat
  26. AAUAAA
    polyadenylation signal, signals the 3' end of pre-MRNA
  27. Poly-A tail
    at 3' end, an enzyme adds 50-250 adenine nucleotides. Facilitate export, protect RNA, help ribosomes attach to 5' end
  28. RNA splicing
    removal of large portions of the RNA molecule
  29. introns
    noncoding segments
  30. extrons
    coding segments of pre-mRNA
  31. snRNPs
    small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, signals for RNA splicing, they recognize splicing sites
  32. spliceosome
    RNA and snRNP and additional proteins, releases intron and joins together extrons
  33. ribozymes
    RNA molecules that function as enzymes. the intron RNA functions as a ribozyme and catalyzes its own excision
  34. alternative RNA splicing
    genes can give rise to different polypeptides based on which parts of the pre-mRNA is treated as an extron. explains biodiversity
  35. In nematode worms, a gene that codes for an ATPase has two alternatives for exon 4 and three alternatives for exon 7. how many different forms of the protein could be made from this gene?
    six different forms could be made because alternative splicing could generate six different mRNAs (two possibilities for exon 4 * 3 possibilities for exon 7)
Card Set
chapter 17
bio translation and transcription and protein synthesis