Serum Gastrointestinal Studies

  1. Albumin
    3.4-5 g/dL

    • Maintains oncotic pressure
    • Transports bilirubin, fatty acids, medications, hormones, and other substances that are insoluble in water.

    *Increased--dehydration, diarrhea, and metastatic carcinoma

    *Decreased--acute infection, ascites, and alcoholism
  2. Alkaline Phosphatase
    4.5-13 King-Armstrong units/dL

    an enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta.

    * Increased during periods of bone growth

    • Nursing Considerations:
    • *12 hrs fasting before the test
    • * Hepatotoxic medications administered within 12 hrs before the test can cause falsely elevated value.
  3. Ammonia
    10-80 mcg/dL

    a byproduct of protein catabolism

    metabolized by the liver, and excreted by the kidneys as urea

    *Increased-- hepatic dysfunction; high levels may lead to encephalopathy

    • Nursing Considerations:
    • * 8-10 hrs fasting except for water & refraining from smoking
    • *Place specimen on ice and transport to laboratory.
  4. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
    4-6 IU/L

    used to identify hepatocellular disease of the liver and to monitor improvement or worsening of the disease.

    *Previous IM injection may cause elevated levels.
  5. AST (Aspartate aminotransferase)
    0-35 units/L

    used to evaluate client with suspected hepatocellular disease (may also be used along with other cardiac markers to evaluate coronary artery occlusive disease)

    *Pevious IM injection may cause elevated levels.
  6. Amylase
    25-151 units/L

    • *Greatly Increased-- Acute pancreatitis
    • level starts rising 3-6 hrs after the onset of pain,
    • peaks in about 24 hrs
    • returns to normal in 2-3 days after the onset of pain
  7. Lipase
    10-140 units/L

    a pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.

    *Increased--pancreatic disorders
  8. Bilirubin
    • Conjugated Bilirubin            0-0.3 mg/dL
    • Unconjugated Bilirubin         0.1-1 mg/dL
    • Total Bilirubin: lower than    1.5 mg/dL


    Nursing Considerations:

    • *4 hrs fasting before test
    • *may cause elevated result: alcohol, morphine sulfate, theophylline, ascorbic acid, aspirin
  9. Lipids
    • Cholesterol: 140-199 mg/dL
    • LDL: lower than 130 mg/dL
    • HDL: 30-70 mg/dL

    * Increased-- use of oral contraceptives
  10. Protein
    6-8 g/dL

    * Increased-- Addison's disease, Autoimmune collagen disorders, Chronic infection, Crohn's Disease
  11. Uric Acid
    • Male Adult:      4.5-8 mg/dL
    • Female Adult:   2.5-6.2 mg/dL

    *Increased amount of deposit in joints and soft tissue---> GOUT

    *Increased cellular turnover, as well as slowed renal excretion of uric acid---> hyperuricemia
Card Set
Serum Gastrointestinal Studies
Normal Values