What are the functions of the nervous system?
Receive external stimuli that activate the cell membrane of nerve cells to release nervous impulses, carry impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord, recognize, interpret, and relay impulses to other nerve cells that extend throughout the body
Cranial nerve I
olfactory - smell
Cranial nerve II
Cranial nerve III
Oculomotor - eye movement
Cranial nerve IV
trochlear - eye movement
Cranial nerve V
Trigeminal - forehead and scalp sensation, cheek sensation, and chewing
Cranial nerve VI
Abducens - Eye movement
Cranial nerve VII
facial - face and scalp movement, taste, ear sensation
Cranial nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear - hearing and balance
Cranial nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal - tongue and throat sensations and throat movements
Cranial nerve X
Vagus nerve - messages to and from neck, chest, abdomen - peristalsis, blood pressure, heart rate, coughing, sneezing
Cranial nerve XI
Accessory - swallowing and head and should movements
Cranial nerve XII
Hypoglossal - speech and swallowing
What does the sympathetic nervous system do?
increase heart rate and forcefulness, dilate airways, increase blood pressure, stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete epinephrine, and inhibit intestinal contractions
What does the parasympathtic nervous system do?
Decrease heart rate, lower blood pressure, stimulate intestinal contractions
What is white matter?
Composed of cell bodies covered with myelin sheath
What is gray matter?
Composed of cell bodies of neurons not covered with myelin sheaath
Carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord from stimulus receptors
Carry impulses away from the CNS to organs that produce responses
What is the function of astrocytes?
Transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons
What is the function of microglial cells?
phagocytic glial cells that remove waste products from the CNS and protect neurons in response to inflammation
What is the function of Oligodendroglial cells?
Form the myelin sheath in the CNS
What is the function of ependymal cells?
Line membranes within the brain and spinal cord where cerebrospinal fluid circulates; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
What region of the brain is the gray matter?
Outermost layer; cerebral cortex
What is the right half of the brain responsible for?
Spatial relationships, art, music, emotions, and intuition
What is the left half of the brain responsible for?
Language, math functioning, reasoning, and analytical thinking
Function of Cerebrum
Thought, judgment, memory association, and discrimination
Function of Thalamus
Main relay center of the brain, conducts impulses between the spinal cord and cerebrum; decides what information is important and maintains levels of awareness and consciousness
Function of Hypothalamus
Body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions; regulates release of hormones from the pituitary gland, integrates activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Function of Cerebellum
Voluntary muscle movements and maintains balance and posture
Function of Basal ganglia
Regulate intentional movements of the body
Function of Medulla oblongata
Respiratory center - controls muscles of respiration, cardiac center - slows the heart rate when it is beating too rapidly, vasomotor center - affect the muscles in the walls of blood vessels
Thought processes, behavior, personality, and emotion (Broca area - language expression)
Body sensations, visual and spatial perception
Hearing, understanding speech and language (Wernicke area - language comprehension)
Where is the wernicke area and what is its function?
temporal lobe of cerebrum - language comprehension
Where is the broca area and what is its function?
Frontal lobe of cerebrum - language expression
Where is the gray matter of the spinal cord?
Where is the white matter of the spinal cord?
Where is the gray matter of the brain?
Outer region (cerebral cortex)
Where is the white matter of the brain?
Excessive sensitivity to pain
Feeling, nervous sensation
To cut off, cut short
Excessive sensitivity to pain
Feeling, nervous sensation
Nerve that carries nervous impulse toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerves
Pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement
Deposit of proteins in neurofibrillary tangles
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease)
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem
What do tonic and clonic mean?
tonic - stiffening of muscles, clonic - twitching and jerking movements of limbs
Temporal lobe epilepsy
Seizures begin in temporal lobe of the brain
Complex partial seizure
Mostcommon type of seizure - pause in whatever they are doing, confusion, and memory problems
Absence of sensitivity to pain
Congenital condition of partial or complete absence of brain matter
Lack of feeling or sensation
Agents that reduce or eliminate sensation
Inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex
Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration, personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning
Which chromosome is linked to AD?
What are 3 characteristics of AD?
Senile plaques (degeneration of neurons), neurofibrillary tangles (bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of a neuron) in the cerebral cortex, amyloid deposits
Inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects
Middle layer of meninges covering brain and spinal cord
Glial cell that transports salts and water from capillaries
Regulate intentional movements of the body
Paralysis on one side of the face caused by a viral infection
Pertaining to the cerebellum and pons
Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Temporary brain dysfunction after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours
Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic disorder persists longer than 24 hours
Partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
Samples of CSF are examined for blood cells, protein, glucose, tumor cells, bacteria, and other substances
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, memory, and other functions
State of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused
Center portion of the brain that connects the two hemispheres
Neurotransmitter in CNS made by cells in the basal ganglia
Sound waves are used to detect blood flow in arteries within the brain and leading to the brain
Impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements
Difficulty in reading, writing, and learning
Nerve that carries message away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
Glial cell that lines the membrane within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
Collection of blood located between the skull and dura mater due to ruptured meningeal artery (usually after a skull fracture)
Brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks of abnormal nervous impulses
Rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain
Region of brain and spinal cord containing cell bodies and dendrites
Sheet of nerve cells that produce a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum
Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves
Hereditary disorder affecting the cerebrum (degenerative changes in cerebrum) and involving abrupt, involuntary, jerking movements, and mental deterioration in later stages
What causes Huntington Disease?
Hereditary - genetic defect on chromosome 4
What causes MS?
idiopathic - maybe autoimmune disease of lymphocytes reacting against myelin
Diminished sensitivity to pain
Excessive sensitivity or feeling especially of the skin in response to touch or pain
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as the convulsion of an epileptic seizure
Collection of blood within the cerebrum due to bleeding in the brain tissue (usually from uncontrolled hypertension)
Pertaining to within the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Chemicals injected into the subarachnoid space
Brain death; complete unresponsitivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat EEG tracing
Inflammation of the two thinner membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap
Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels
Hernia in the meninges through a defect or space between vertebrae; a form of spina bifida cystica
Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
Broca aphasia; expressive aphasia; The patient knows what he wants to say but cannot say it
Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
What causes MG?
Antibodies block the ability of acetylcholine to transmit the nervous impulse from nerve to muscle cell
What treatments are used for MS?
Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, interferons to slow the rate of MS symptoms, Glatiramer to block immune system's attack on myelin
What treatments are used for MG? Therapy, Anticholinesterase drugs inhibit the enzyme that breaks dwon acetylcholine, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, thymectomy
Congenital hernia of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral column; associated with spina bifida
Lack of strength in the nerves; feeling of weakness and exhaustion
Supporting cells of the nervous system
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron
Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause; tingling, numbness or pricking sensations
Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occur in later life, leading to tumors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine is deficient in the brain
What causes parkinson disease?
Deficiency of dopamine
How is parkinson disease treated?
Levodopa + carbidopa (sinement) to increase dopamine levels in the brain to relieve symptoms
what causes tourette syndrome?
idiopathic; associated with excess of dopamine or hypersensitivity to dopamine
What are treatments for tourette syndrome?
Antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, and mood stabilizers
How is meningitis diagnosed and treated?
Lumbar puncture to examine CSF for diagnosis and antibiotics and antivirals for treatment
What are three types of CVA?
Thrombotic - blood clot in the arteries leading to the brain that blocks the vessels (TIAs), embolic - embolus occludes small cerebral vessel, 3.Hemorrhagic - blood vessel breaks and bleeding occurs
How is CVA treated?
tPA within 3 hours of stroke onset and surgical intervention with carotid endarterectomy
What causes a migraine?
Dilation of blood vessels
High-energy radiation beam used to treat deep and inaccessible intracranial brain tumors and abnormal blood vessel masses
Proton sterostatic radiosurgery
Delivers uniform dose of protom radiation to target and spares surrounding tissue
Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
Part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain; connects the upper and lower portions of the brain
Neurologic symptoms such as weakness after seizures
Inflammation of a spinal nerve root
Disease of a spinal nerve root
A stupor (unresponsiveness) from which a patient can be aroused.
The patient articulates words easily but uses them inappropriately; difficulty understanding written and verbal commands and cannot repeat them
Congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal and meninges may herniate through the vertebral gap
Spina bififa occulta
Vertebral defect is covered with skin and evident onliny in x-rays
Spina bifida cystica
More severe form with cyst-like protrusions
Meninges protruse to the outside of the body
Spinal cord and meninges protrude
How is spina bifida diagnosed?
Prental imaging methods and testing maternal blood samples for AFP
Use of a specialized instrument using three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on
Space between the pia mater and arachnoid membrane that controls CSF
Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater from tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
Transient ischemic attach
Fleeting episode of ischemia in the brain
Flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve; trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper and lower jaw
Tenth cranial nerve that controls the chest and abdominal organs
Fluid-filled canals in the brain
Region of brain and spinal cord containing nerve fiber tracts with myelin sheath
Temporal lob epilepsy
Transient ischemic attack
Arteriovenous malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum
Traumatic brain injury
Proton stereotactic radiosurgery
Gamma-amniobutyric acid (neurotransmitter)
Intracranial pressure (normal = 5-15 mm Hg)
Monitored anesthetic care
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; technique using a battery-powered device to relive acute and chronic pain
What is the cause of hydrocephalus?
Impaired circulation of CSF in the brain or spinal cord at birth; brain tumor or infection in adults
How is hydrocephalus treated?
Catheter placed in the ventricle of the brain into the peritoneal space or right atrium of the heart to drain CSF from the brain