List 8 health benefits associated with regular participation in physical activity.
- * risk of early death
- * risk of heart disease
- * risk of stroke
- * risk of hypertension
- * risk of adverse blood lipid profile
- * risk of Type 2 Diabetes
- * risk of metabolic syndrome
- * risk of colon & breast cancer
- * depression
- * chance of falling
- * weight gain
- * weight loss
- * cardiorespiratory & muscular fitness
- * cognitive function (especially older adults)
- * functional health
How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
Interval training improves aerobic performance by maximizing aerobic power and increasing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power at higher intensity.
List 3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs.
- Increased volume of left ventricle = more blood pumped per beat (stroke volume), improved cardiac output (blood pumped per minute) and therefore lower resting heart rate
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange more efficiently = higher breath rate & pulmonary ventilation
- Increased blood flow + increased lung diffusion = better oxygen delivery to body
Define energy and its food source.
- Energy = ability to do work
- Source = sun, but must be transformed to chemical energy for our bodies to use it
ATP = adenosine triphosphate; carries chemical energy produced by the body to muscles for work
Identify the fuel source, intensity, duration, and 3 activities for the following energy pathway: ATP-CP/phosphagen system.
- Fuel source = creatine phosphate
- Intensity = very high, fastest output of any pathway
- Duration = very limited, less than 30 seconds due to limited phosphate sources
- Activities = quick sprint, high jump, punch, kick
Identify the fuel source, intensity, duration, and 3 activities for the following energy pathway: lactic acid system.
- Fuel source = carbohydrates (glucose from blood or glycogen stored in muscle)
- Intensity = medium, faster than aerobic but slower than phosphagen
- Duration = short, more than phosphagen but the body doesn't like the output (lactic acid)
- Activities = 400 meter dash, rally in a soccer game, floor routine in gymnastics
Identify the fuel source, intensity, duration, and 3 activities for the following energy pathway: aerobic system.
- Fuel source = carbohydrates, fat, protein
- Intensity = low, very slow
- Duration = very long, virtually unlimited source of fuel, just need plenty of oxygen
- Activities = walking, jogging, cycling
Define steady state.
the state at which cardiac output, heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation attain a constant level to meet oxygen demand during exercise, usually 3-4 minutes after beginning
Excessive post-exercise oxygen consumption, period after exercise when breathing, heart rate, and oxygen consumption are still above resting levels
Define oxygen deficit.
the period when oxygen consumption is too low to supply ATP production for exercise
Define anaerobic threshold.
the body can't meet demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism increases
Define aerobic capacity.
the ability of the body to take oxygen from the air, get it through the lungs, and deliver it via the blood to muscles
Define lactic acid.
the byproduct of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen
Contrast aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
- Glucose breakdown = aerobic is complete, anaerobic is partial
- Fuel source = aerobic uses carbs, fats, or proteins, anaerobic only uses carbs
- Duration = aerobic for long, anaerobic for short
- EPOC = smaller in aerobic, larger in anaerobic
- Intensity = moderate/submaximal work in aerobic, maximal/high for anaerobic
- End products = CO2 and H2O for aerobic, lactic acid for anaerobic
- Chemical breakdown = aerobic requires oxygen, anaerobic doesn't
Define stroke volume.
the amount of blood pumped by one heart beat
Define cardiac output.
the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
Define venous return.
the action of the muscles massaging blood through the veins back toward the heart
Define blood pooling.
blood pools in lower extremities because exercise is stopped too quickly for muscles to continue working the blood back to the heart
Define vital capacity.
the greatest volume of air in one breath
Define Valsalva maneuver.
holding your breath to force your glottis closed while exerting energy; can be dangerous
Define blood pressure norms.
systolic over diastolic, 120/80 considered good, 140/90 considered high
the articulation of two or more bones, usually movement occurs, can be non-synovial or synovial
connects bone to bone, reinforces joints, non-elastic
connects muscle to bone
softer tissue in joints that can form structure or serve to reduce friction; avascular and aneural
Describe the following anatomical terms:
- Anterior = front
- Posterior = back
- Medial = center
- Lateral = side
- Supine = face up
- Prone = face down
- Superior = above
- Inferior = below
- Unilateral = one-sided
- Bilateral = both sides
Describe how these anatomical planes divide the body:
- Horizontal/transverse = divide top from bottom
- Sagittal = divide left from right
- Frontal = divide front from back
decrease the angle between bones
increase the angle between bones
move away from the body midline
move toward the body midline
move around an axis
the extremity describes a circle (360 degrees)
the primary muscle moving in a given action
muscles working in opposition to the primary movers
muscles that support the primary movers in a given action
muscles that prevent undesired or excess movement
"equal length", muscle movement without joint movement
shortening of the muscle, positive work against gravity or resistance
lengthening of the muscle, negative work with gravity, low energy
"equal tension", constant tension as muscle lengthens and contracts
"equal motion", muscle shortens at a constant rate, need to use special equipment to achieve this type of contraction
Which three muscle contractions are used in a group exercise setting?
Define fast twitch muscle fibers.
muscle fibers that are used in quick, high-intensity activity, fatigue easily
Define slow twitch muscle fibers.
muscle fibers that are used for long-term, low to moderate intensity activity
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of weight-bearing activities?
- Increased strength
- Improved use of glucose
- Increased bone mineral content
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular strength?
- Better stability
- Better posture
- Less risk of injury/joint irritation
- Better functional health
What are the musculoskeletal benefits of increased muscular flexibility?
- Less risk of injury
- Larger range of motion
- Better functional health
Describe three postural deviations of the back.
- Scoliosis = spinal curve to the side, typically in lumbar region
- Lordosis = increased curve in lumbar region, looks like individual is pushing out their chest and butt
- Kyphosis = increased curve in thoracic region, looks like hump or slouch
Define the stretch reflex, its purpose, and when it occurs.
Stretch reflex is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle; it provides automatic regulation of muscle length; occurs when muscle is overstretched
Explain why ballistic movements can be dangerous.
Ballistic movements are sudden and explosive, can cause stress on joints or injury if the body isn't properly warmed up or conditioned for that type of movement, and can cause hyperextension.
What are the 10 major muscle groups?
- trapezius, rhomboids and/or latissimus dorsi
- deltoids (shoulders)
- biceps and/or triceps
- hip abductors (outer thigh) and/or adductors (inner thigh)
- gluteus maximus
- quadriceps and/or tibialis anterior (shin area)
- hamstrings and/or gastrocnemius/solues (calves)
- rectus abdominis and/or obliques
- erector spinae (low back)