What are the reasons for greater gene regulation in eukaryotes?
More complex cell structure
Different tissue types
Variety of cell types
Describe general transcription factors.
Binding of RNA polymerase to the core promoter.
Passage from initiation to the elongation.
Required for basal level of transcription.
Describe regulatory transcription factors.
Regulate the "rate" of transcription of target genes.
Influence the ability of RNA polymerase to begin transcription of a "particular" gene.
Regulatroy factors recognize cis-acting elements known as what?
What is a homodimer?
Formed from two identical TF proteins.
What is a Heterodimer?
Formed from two different TF proteins.
What is Up regulation?
Binding of an activator to an enhancer to stimulate transcription.
What is down regulation?
Binding of repressor to a silencer to inhibit transcription.
Many response elements are _____ or _____.
Where are response elements located?
Usually found upstream from the promoter site.
Occasionally downstream of promoter site.
Have been found within introns.
Regulatory transcription factors that respond to steroid hormones are known as what?
What is a splicing repressor's function?
Prevents splicosome from recognizing the 3' splice junction of the exon.
What is a splicing enhancer's function?
Promotes the recognition of poorly recognized sites. Tells splicosome to cut the 3' splice junction.
Destabilizing elements are commonly found in the mRNA at the 3' end between the stop codon and the polyA tail in a region called what?
3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR)
What is the UTR site?
Part of the mRNA from the stop codon to the polyA tail.
What is the AU-rich element (ARE)?
AUUUA is a consensus sequence will be recognized by proteins in the cytosol, these proteins will effect how long the life of the sequence will last.
What is Ferritin?
Stores all excess iron in the cell.
The IRE is in the 5'UTR section.
Where is the UTR seciont in transferrin?
3' UTR section
Lecture test number four.