What was the population change in Canada from 1821 to 1851? Where are these immigrants coming from?
- 1821 - 750,000
- 1851 - 2.3 million
- Not coming from USA, Americans are restricted from owning land until after seven years of living there. Must prove loyalty and swear oath of allegiance.
- Most immigrants come from the British Isles.
How does the wave of migration following the War of 1812 change Canada?
Upper Canada receives most of the migration from the British Isles. Becomes more protestant, gradually more developed into farmland. Also more liberal/reform.
Who is credited with establishing the modern day public school system in Canada? When did that occur? What were his major contributions?
- Egerton Ryerson, a Methodist minister.
- Became Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada in 1844.
- Credited with keeping educational secular, open to all churches. Includes libraries in every school, professional development conventions for teachers, a central textbook press using Canadian authors, and helped secure land grants for universities.
Canada's population at the time of Confederation?
< 3.5 million
Name the act passed that gave Canada it's confederacy.
British North America Act 1867
Which provinces were included in the Dominion of Canada in 1867?
- Nova Scotia
- New Brunswick
Most populous province in Canada, 1871?
Name the largest ethnic group in Canada or European origin other than the British or French in 1867.
Largest railway line in Canada in the 1850s?
Grand Trunk Railway from Windsor to Quebec.
First canals constructed in Canada? When?
- Lachine Canal, 1825, Lachine Rapids
- Welland Canal, 1829, Niagara Falls
When was Northwest Company absorbed by Hudson Bay Company?
When does the Red River Settlement get started?
What is the Family Compact?
- An epithet applied by the opponents of it, a term that describes a small group of closed men or exercise most of the political and judical power in Canada between 1815 and 1850.
- Powerful positions were passed down the family line.
- Stressed British connection. Had a conservative outlook.
- They were also called the Tories, and later became known as the Conservative Party.
Who were two of the biggest names regarding the Family Compact?
- Bishop Strachan (Bishop of York), John Beverly Robinson (Chief Justice)
- They basically ran the government.
Which two factions were in the legislative assembly in Canada prior to 1867? Who initially formed the majority?
- Tories and Reformers
- Tories were initally in the majority
One of the earliest, most outspoken reformers in the early 1800s? What was his particularly against?
- Scottish man, Robert Gourlay
- Hated the system that prevented immigrant Americans from owning land for seven years
Who is William Lyon Mackenzie?
- Newspaper owner/editor.
- Owned Colonial Advocate newspaper.
- Very passionate about his reforms, and hated injustice.
- Attacked the Tories relentlessly.
What are some of the issues surrounding preconfederacy Canada?
- Lack of single currency.
- Citizenship status for American immigrants.
- Crown land set aside for churches, especially when it only goes to once church.
Who wins the election in 1834? Consequence?
- Reformers have majority in assembly.
- Write report called Seventh Report of Grievances.
- That report gets old Lt.Gov of Upper Canada booted.
- Replaced by Sir Francis Bond Head in 1835.
- He continues to ignore refomers.
- Results in Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 led by Mackenzie.
What did the Upper Canadian Assembly look like in the 1830s?
Tories in majority, with Moderate Reformers and Radical Reformers taking equal amount of leftover seats.
What did the Lower Canadian Assembly look like in the 1830s?
Moderate Reform (French) in majority, with Tory British and Radical Reform (French) taking equal number of leftover seats.
Consequence of the Land Tenure Act - 1825?
- Removed seigneurial system from Quebec.
- Helped result in Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837.
Who led the Radical Reform Party?
Joseph Louis Papineau, leader of the Patriotes and ran newspaper La Canadien.
Who led Lower Canada during the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837?
- Lord John Russel, who suspends constitution from 1838 to 1840.
- He denies everyone of the 92 grievances sent to British gov't by Lower Canada.
Who was sent to govern Lower Canada following 1837 rebellion? Consequences?
- Lord Durham, aka "Radical Jack", reform minded, snobbish, dictorial, conciliator
- Durham makes recommendations to British Parliament for dealing with Lower Canada.
- His suggestion to unify Lower and Upper Canada is accomplished through Act of Union 1840.
Consequence of Act of Union 1840?
- Upper and Lower Canada combined to form province of Canada.
- Equal seats given to Canada West and Canada East Legislative Assembly.
- Combined Legislative Assembly dominated by British.
- All government business in English.
First Gov-Gen of Canada 1840?
Lord Sydenham, enacts all of Act of Union 1840, accidentally killed while hunting in 1841.
Who runs the reform parties in Canada West and East?
- West - Robert Baldwin
- East - Louis Lafontaine
Which Gov. of Canada finally brings about the change Canadian politics needs? How?
- Lord Elgin, 1848
- Takes Baldwin and Lafontaine into his Executive Council, makes them responsible to the people.
- Doesn't get involved with legislative assembly.
- Rebellion Losses Bill of 1849 passed legislative house.
- Results in Stony Monday Riot by English speakers and tory supporters.
- Lord Elgin also signs Reciprocity Treaty - 1854 with USA.
How is responsible gov't brought to Maritimes?
- Joseph Howe, had newspaper, Novascotian
- Charged with defamation for accusing Halifax police of corruption but wins his defense.
- Recommends to British gov't that Legislative and Executive branches be separated. It works.
- Starting 1848 in NS and ending 1855 in NFL, all Atlantic provinces had responsible gov't.
Why was Reciprocity Treaty so critical? Year it was enacted?
- USA very protectionist prior to that. Especially difficult for Canadians because Britain moving to Free Trade, so trading less with colonies.
- Economic benefit during its enactment was obviously beneficial to Canadians.
- Helped stem talks of annexing to USA for economic reasons.
- Traded coal exporting from NS despite coal rich mines in Pennsylvania for unlimited fishing rights for Americans in Maritimes.
- Enacted 1854
Irish Potato Famine date?
How does Lord Elgin get Reciprocity Treaty signed into law in USA?
- Tells the north it's good because it'll lead to Canadian annexation.
- Tells the south it's good because it'll prevent Canadian annexation.
Terms of Reciprocity Treaty?
- - remove duties on long list of natural products
- - American fishers had unlimited access to Cdn Atl. coastal waters
- - Cdns could fish as far south as 36th parallel
- - Both ntns had free access to St Lawrence, Cdn canals, Lake Michigan, etc.
- - runs for 10 years
What's going on around Oregon Country in the 1840s?
- Both USA and British claim Oregon Country (modern-day BC, Washington, and Oregon)
- Treaty of Oregon - 1849 resolves it to current day borders, Vancouver Island in British control.
- Colony of Vancouver Island established.
Consequence of the Fraser River Gold Rush?
- Formation of British Columbia colony (1858), headed by James Douglas, is the result of protective efforts against gold prospectors and Chinese mine workers coming up from the south.
- Experience with Americans possibly encourages BC to look east instead of south for a union.
When does Civil War break out? How long does it last? Consequences for Canada?
- Canadians support the North (even with volunteer soldiers), but British gov't supports south in practice (for cotton), leading to great tensions.
- Tensions encourage thought of uniting against chaos in the south.
What do the Reform English start calling themselves pre-confederation? What does that name eventually change to? Who's in charge?
- The Clear Grits
- The Liberal Party
- George Brown, also runs The Globe newspaper
What do Reform French start calling themselves pre-confederation?
What are the beginnings of the Conservative Party today?
- Parti-Rouge's radicalism scared enough legisilative members into banding together.
- Reform French band with Tory English in Canada East, and then those two band with Reform English and Tory English in Canada West.
- Initally called Liberal-Conservative Party.
- First led by John A Macdonald with George Cartier.
What are the beginnings of the Liberal Party today?
- Initally called British-Liberal Party.
- Combination of Clear Grits and Parti-Rouge to counter Conservative Party. Parti-Rouge dropped just prior to Confed.
- Led by George Brown.
What factors lead up to Confederation in the years prior to 1867?
- Equal seats in Canada East and West an issue.
- Serious chaos south of border is worrisome.
- 1864 - George Brown says Brit-Lib Party will form coalition with Macdonald/Conserv. Party to confederate.
- 1864 - Charlottetown Conference, Macdonald crashed it, convinced NS and NB to join.
- Seventy-Two Resolutions written by all interested parties lays out plan.
- Joseph Howe almost derails it with opposition in NS, but end of Reciprocity Treaty seals the deal.
Which conference establishes Confederation?
- Westminster Conference in 1866.
- Gets the BNA 1867 passed.
- British accept the 72 resolutions.
What are the provincial powers?
- - education
- - municipal affairs
- - civil law
- - licensing
- - public works (hospital, prisons, etc)
- - limited taxation to pay for above
- - property and civil rights