Function of Testes?
Produces gametes and secrete hormones
Function of the system of ducts?
- Store sperm
- Assists in their maturation
- delivers to exterior
What are the accessory sex glands?
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands
Function of Accessory sex glands?
Adds secretions to semen
What are the supporting structures?
scrotum and penis
Scrotum function and structures
- Houses testes
- dartos muscle & cremaster muscle regulate temperature, raises scrotum when contracted, lowers when relaxed
Where does the spermatic cord enter?
Enters the pelvic cavity through inguinal canals
What is the site of Inguinal hernias?
Seminal vesicles secrete what in sperm?
Secrete alkaline, viscous fluid containing fructose
Secrete Prostaglandins - stimulate motility of sperm and muscle contractions within female tract
What do Prostaglandins do?
stimulate motility of sperm and muscle contractions within female tract
What do the prostate secrete in semen?
Secretes milky fluid that increases sperm viability and mobility.
Secretes proteolytic enzymes that digest proteins that interfere with sperm and help clear trail when inside female
What do proteolytic enzymes do?
digest proteins that interfere with sperm and help clear trail when inside female
What do the Bulbourethral glands secrete and do?
Alkaline fluid- neutralizes acids in vagina
Mucus- lubricates end of penis and lining of urethra
The Dartos muscle does what?
Raises to regulate temperature
what does the cremaster muscle do?
What brings semen to the testes?
Ductus vas deferens, Autonomic nerve, testicular artery, lymphatic vessel
What does erectile tissue consist of?
Corpora cavernosa penis, spongy urethra, corpus spongiosum penis
What forms the cremaster muscle?
Internal oblique muscle
Testes develop where during development?
Near kidney and descends near 7th month of fetal development
The spermatic cord consists of what?
- Testicular artery & Vein
- Lymphatic vessels
- Vas Deferens
- Cremaster muscle
What does the Vas Deferens do?
Transports sperm into pelvis
Where is the vas deferens located?
In the spermatic cord
The Epididymis does what?
- Storages and Matures sperm
- acquires motility & ability to fertilize
- reabsorbs degenerate sperm
What do the seminiferous tubules do?
site of spermatogenisis-miosis that produces sperm
What structures causes an erection?
Parasympathetic fibers- causes production of Nitric Oxide (NO) in erectile tissue - potent vasodilator
Vasodialation of arterioles
What does NO do?
It is a potent vasodialator that cause an erection
Which erectile tissue surrounds the urethra?
Where does sperm get produced?
In the cells of seminferous tubules
What do sertoli cells do?
- Form blood-testis barrier
- Nourish spermatogenic cells
- Phagocytize excess spermatid cytoplasm
- Release sperm into lumen
- Produce fluid for sperm transport
- Secrete Inhibin which inhibits FSH
What hormone inhibits FSH?
What hormone is found in steroli cells?
What hormone is found in Leydig cells?
Where are Leydig cells found?
in spaces between seminiferous tubules
What do leydig cells do?
What are the steps of Spermatogenesis?
- 1. Mitosis - divides
- 2. Meosis 1 - replicates DNA, tetrad formation, crossing over
- 3. Meosis 2 - secondary spermatocytes each have 2 chromatids = spermatids
- 4. Spermiogenesis - spermatids become spermatozoa
What allows sperm to fertilize?
The Acrosome contains enzymes that allow to fertilize
What Hormone is produced at puberty and what does it do?
GnRH - produces FSH
What does FSH do?
Simulates spermatogensis with testosterone
Negative Feedback Stimulus
Increased/Decreased blood level of testosterone
Negative Feedback Receptors
Negative Feedback Control Center
Anterior pituitary gonadotrophs
Negative Feedback Effectors
Leydig cells in testes produce more/less testosterone
Negative Feedback response
Decrease/increase of blood level of testosterone