What are the Non modifiable risk factors for CAD?
•Age, gender, and ethnicity•Family history and genetics
Etiology of CAD
Atherosclerosis (deposits of cholesterol and lipids)–
Developmental stages of CAD
- Fatty streak
- Fibrous plaque•
- Complicated lesion–
Collateral circulation may develop over time if inherited predisposition or chronic ischemia exists with what disease?
–Modifiable major risk factors for CAD
•Elevated serum lipids
- Tobacco use•
- Physical inactivity•
- Diabetes mellitus–
- Metabolic syndrome–
- Psychologic states–
- Elevated homocysteine levels
Pharmacological Therapy of CAD
- •Cholesterol-lowering drug therapy
- Drugs that restrict lipoprotein production= statins
- Drugs that increase lipoprotein removal= bile acid sequestrants
- Drugs that decrease cholesterol absorption=zetia–Antiplatelet therapy- ASA 81mg po qd
a patient is placed on a cholesterol lipid lowering drug which restrict lipoprotein production. what kind of drug is this
a patient is placed on a drug to treat CAD that increases lilpoprotein removal. which drug is this?
bile acid sequestrants
What is zetia and what is it used for?
decreases cholesterol absorption and is used to treat patients with CAD
Antiplatelet therapy is used for CAD patients at what dosage
ASA 81 mg by mouth every day
What are examples of statins and what are they used to treat
- Helps treat CAD
what are the Statins do?
- Most widely used •Inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver by blocking HMG-CoA reductase•
- Liver able to reduce more LDL in the blood•increase in HDLs
- lower C-Reactive Protein levels
Bile acid sequestrants are used to treat patients with CAD by
- •Lower LDL levels by binding bile acids in the intestine reducing its reabsorption and cholesterol production in the liver.•
- Primary effect is decrease in total cholesterol and LDLs
- •Interfere with absorption of other drugs ex: warfarin, thiazides, thyroid hormones, beta blockers
Zetia is used in a patient with CAD and does what?
Selectively inhibits the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol across the intestinal wall. •
Zetia is Given with statin to to do what?
greatly reduce LDLs
A patient presents to the hospital and is diagnosed with CAD Niacin is perscribed and will do what for the patient
Lowers total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. •Multiple side effects •Used in combination therapy, particularly with statins
Nicotinic acid examples are
•Niacin (Nicobid, Nicolar, Niaspan, others)•