Microbiology 3 for real

  1. What is Variolation?
    Derivative of variolation, a process where Dried smallpox scabs blown into the nose of a person or inserted under the skin. Like Jenner's vaccination. 1-2% died vs. 30% without vaccination.
  2. Chicken Pox (8)
    • DNA Genome
    • Icosohedral Capsid
    • Enveloped
    • Acute=Chicken Pox
    • Latent=shingles
    • Hides in nerves
    • Treated with Acyclovir
    • Shingles vaccine with live virus-it can replicate
  3. Herpes (8)
    • DNA
    • Icosohedral
    • Enveloped
    • Acute=herpes outbreak
    • Latent=hides in nerves
    • HSV1=cold sores
    • HSV2=Genital
    • Can be contagious when asymptomatic
  4. Baltimore classification
    • Based on genome
    • RNA, DNA or both
    • double/single stranded
  5. HIV (10)
    • RNA
    • Icosohedral
    • Enveloped
    • Chronic
    • Reverse Transcriptase-RNA to DNA
    • Intergrase-insertion of genome into host=life long infection
    • Viral tropism-CD4 is T helper cell MHC co-receptor
    • CCR5 is HIV co-receptor
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia-rare fungal pneumonia, opportunist
    • Kaposi's sarcoma is a raare human herpes virus-skin infections
    • Once HIV buds from surface of cell-mature, needs protease to cut proteins into pieces.
  6. Retrovirus
    • Such as HIV-takes RNA, turns it into DNA to go into cells.
    • Reverse transcripotase does it, uses host nucleotides
  7. Q- HIV exhibits _______________ for cells that display a CD4 receptors on their surface.
    A- tropism
  8. Treatments of HIV: (5)
    • ARVs-Antiretroviral-stop entry of HIV
    • NNRTIs RTIS=reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • Integrase inhibitors-stop integration or virus DNA into cell
    • PI-Protease inhibitors stop cleaving of proteins
    • Interferons-immune enhancement
  9. Rabies (7)
    • RNA
    • Rhabdovirus-Helical Bullet shaped
    • Acute encehalitis
    • Tropism to CNS
    • Hydrophobia
    • Treated by passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies
    • Bite-4-12 weeks incubation, spinal cord becomes inflamed, foaming at mouth
  10. Warts (7)
    • DNA genome
    • No envelope
    • Human Papilloma virus
    • Transformation-cells are changed to someting uncontrollable (cancer)
    • Spread sexually
    • Tropism to cervix
    • Pap smear to look for intraepithelial neoplasia (PCR for HPV DNA)
  11. Viral shapes (3) plus envelope
    • Icosohedral capsid
    • helical capsid,
    • amorphous
  12. Viral Genomes:
    DNA or RNA
  13. Viral Replication (3):
    • Plus strand RNA can be transcribed just like host mRNA
    • Negative RNA must be converted by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    • Retroviruses convert RNA genome into DNA by viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase
  14. Bacteriophage (3)
    • viruses of bacteria
    • Bacteriophage transfer antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria by a process called TRANSDUCTIION
    • Viral infection of a cell can result in LYTIC (virus replicates and destroys host cell) OR LYSOGENIC (virus inserts itself into host DNA) EVENT.
    • Phage treatment of food?
  15. Viral infection and the immune system: (4)
    • Macrophage, complement have little impact on VIRAL infection
    • Antibodies produced during exposure/vaccination NEUTRALIZE the virus by preventing attachment or entry into host cell
    • Natural killer cells play a primary role in VIRAL AND CANCER immunity-they have the ability to kill OUR OWN CELLS in the absence of MCHI
    • Apoptosis-programmed cell death, like an intracellular clotting cascade
  16. Smallpox (4)
    • Variola Virus-eradicated from world via vaccine
    • Milkmaids did not get smallpox.
    • Edward Jenner found cowpox-smallpox link, rubbed cowpox into boy's skin
    • First vaccine ever developed 1796
    • VACCA means cow
  17. InfluenzA (6)
    • RNA
    • Negative RNAdep RNApolymerase
    • Enveloped
    • Acute disease
    • Antigenic drift is why you need new flu vaccine every year
    • Antigenic shift-epidemic
    • Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuramindase (N) are viral surface receptors, participate in adherence and uncoating.
  18. Antigenic drift
    as the disease progresses in a certain population and spontaneuous mutation in RNA change H and N (hemagglutin and Neuromindase)
  19. Essentials of Virology (6):
    • Genomes
    • Structure
    • Replication
    • Bacterial Viruses: Lytic vx. Lysogenic
    • Animal Viruses: Retroviridae
    • Viral Classification
  20. Lytic Vs. Lysogenic
    • Bacteriophages
    • Lytic-replicates and destroys
    • Lysogenic-Inserts stuff into DNA of cell
  21. General properties of viruses (5):
    • Viruses are not cell
    • They require a host cell for replication
    • Viruses of Eukaryotes are called viruses
    • Viruses of prokaryotes are called phages
    • Single particle=virion
  22. Riovirus (4)
    • viroid-potato spindle tuber virus
    • Viroids have no capsid, just naked RNA
    • Smallest known pathogen
    • May be a treatment for cancer
    • Prions (4)
    • -extracellular form is entirely protein (NO GENOME)!
    • -no DNA/RNA code,
    • -prion infection results in a self-propagating abnormal conformational state
    • -Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies ike KURU, CJD, Mad Cow Disease (and ALZHEIMERS).
  23. Q- HIV exhibits _______________ for cells that display a CD4 receptors on their surface.
    A- tropism
  24. Baltimore classification (4)
    • Classifications of viruses by genome
    • DNA single and double strand
    • RNA single and double strand
    • RNA to DNA viruses=retroviruses
  25. Ixodes ticks (6)
    • Transmit Lyme borrelia
    • Bloodmeals; prefers rodents and small mammals
    • Duration of meal=5-7 days
    • Time between meals-months to years
    • 2 tick species: scapularis and pacificus
    • 3 Borrellia species: bergdorferi, Afselii, Garinii
  26. Pathology of Lyme disease:
    • Bulls eye rash
    • arthritis
    • bells palsy
  27. 1. Cellular morphologies of bacteria are described as coccoid (round) and bacilliform (rod). Virus particles (virion) also have common shapes, two of which are;
    • A. Orthogonal and enveloped
    • B. Enveloped and amorphous
    • C. Helical and Icosohedral
    • D. Orthogonal and Icosohedral
    • C. Helical and Icosohedral
  28. 2. The nucleocapsid is best described as;
    • A. The envelope plus the capsid
    • B. Binding site for nucleotides on the capsid
    • C. Capsid and Genome
    • D. Lipid bilayer nucleus
    • C. Capsid and genome
  29. 3. Which best describes the virion size and nucleic acid content of picornaviruses?
    • A. DNA genome, very small
    • B. RNA genome, very small
    • C. DNA genome, large
    • D. RNA genome, large
    • B. RNA, very small (pico-rna)
  30. 4. Hepadnaviridae are a group of viruses that have a ________________________ genome and are associated with infection of the________________________.

    D. RNA, liver
    A. DNA, liver (hepa dna)
  31. 5. From a single cell, bacteria multiply (binary fission) resulting in a population of clones on the surface of an agar plate termed a ‘colony’. Analogously, a single virion can infect a single host cell on the surface of a culture plate containing living tissue or cells. Subsequent infection and lysis of neighboring cells results in a clearing termed a ______________________.
    A. lysozone
    B. virolony
    C. plaque D. hemozone
    C. Plaque
    C. Plaque
  32. 6. The ___________________________ assay is a method used to quantify the number of virion in a particular sample, wherein serial dilutions of the sample are mixed with RBC’s in microtiter plates, and ‘button’ results are visible by eye.
    A. hemagglutination
    B. hemadsorption
    C. precipitation
    D. adherence
    A. hemagglutination--I saw it on Google images
  33. 7. _____________________ is the term used to describe the process where enveloped virion are released from the host cell.
    A. germination
    B. virolease
    C. exocytosis
    D. budding
    D. Budding
  34. 8. Presence of virion in the _________________ is termed viremia.

    B. Blood
  35. 9. Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that converts ____________ into ____________ , a necessity for the retroviridae such as HIV.
    A. RNA, DNA
    B. DNA, RNA
    C. Protein, RNA
    D. RNA, protein\
    A. RNA to DNA
  36. Apoptosis
    • programmed cell death
    • cascades caused by enzymes
  37. Phages are the oldest ubiqutious organism on the planet: True or false
  38. 10. Positive-strand RNA viruses possess a genome that is just like eukaryotic ______________, enabling instantaneous synthesis of proteins required for self replication.
    A. rRNA
    B. mRNA
    C. tRNA
    D. gDNA
    B. mRNA
  39. 12. The acquired immune response plays a mayor role in viral infections. true or false
  40. 12. Initial binding of virus particle to host cell is most commonly referred to as ______________________.

    D. contact
    B. Adsorption
  41. 14. Quantification of virus can be achieved by hemagglutination, plaque formation, and real time PCR. True or False
  42. 14. The 3 terms used to describe outcomes of a viral infection are acute, chronic, and _____________.

    D. ingressive
    B. Latent
  43. 16. The most effective cellular immune response to viral infection is accomplished by;
    A. Natural Killer cells
    B. Dendritic cells
    C. Macrophages
    D. PMN’s
    I think it's A. Natural Kill
  44. Natural Killer cells have the ability to kill our cells because of the absence of
  45. What is Sporadic?
    disease occurs infrequently
  46. What is Endemic?
    the disease is constantly present
  47. What is Epidemic?
    a sudden increase in the incidence of a disease over the normally expected amount of time
  48. What is Pandemic?
    epidemic on more than one continent
  49. OspA/OspB (5)
    • Major outer surface (lipo)proteins of Lyme Borrelia while in the Ixodes mudgut.
    • ospA synthesis is reduced during bloodmeal.
    • OspA is a trnsmission-blocking Lyme disease vaccine
    • Crystal structure predicts a binding pocket
    • OspAB mutant auto-agglutinates
    • Apparently, experiments prove that OspAB are not midgut adhesins!
  50. Enterics
    Gram negatives in the GI tract-normal flora
  51. E coli adhesion (4)
    • Type 3 secretion system-
    • like a syringe-docks into host membrane,
    • injects receptors tht come up to dock with e. coli
    • Proteins make a long chain which rises up above host cell
  52. Salmonella
    • Tells cell to suck it up and modifies cell from the inside.
    • Injects toxins into host cell
    • Causes changes in host proteins to induce phagocytosis
    • produces a profuse inflammatory response with abd pain/diarrhea
  53. Enterogenic- (3)
    • no epithileal cell invasion-stuck on luminal surface
    • , watery diarrhea
    • Vibrio cholera and enterotoxigenic E. coli
  54. Enteroinvasive (4)
    • Invasion of intestional epithelium
    • Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive e. coli
    • WBC infiltration, immune response, cell death, RBC leakage
    • Blood/ WBC in diarrhea, pain
  55. Sepsis (3)
    • Circulatory and lymph system invasion
    • Can lead to fever, headache, WBC elevation and sepsis
    • Salmonella typhii, Tersinia enterocolitica
  56. Enteric Bugs (5)
    • 1. Escherica Coli-prototype
    • 2. Salmonella-facultative intracellular, usually from animal feces
    • 3. Shigella-similar to enterinvasive E. coli
    • 4. Vibrio/cholera-curved with polar flagella.
    • 5. Cholera-death from dehydration/fluid loss
    • 6. Helicobacter-2nd leading cause of duodenal ulcers –acid loving (first cause of ulcers is ASA and chronic gastritis
  57. Where does gas come from?
    Many enterics eat lactose and produce acid and gas
  58. Methyline Blue agar
    • Methyline blue dye inhibits growth of gram + bacteria (selective)
    • Differentiates Gram- by their ability to ferment lactose (turns media purple/black)
  59. McConkey agar
    • Uses bile salts which inhibit growth of Gram+
    • differentiates Gram- by their ability to ferment lactose (turns media pink).
  60. What is the most significant structure involved in septic shock?
    • LPS
    • Lipopolysaccharide
  61. Filovirus (3)
    • threadlike and pleomorphic
    • Hemorrhagic fever
    • Ebola, Marburg
  62. Differences beween E. coli and Salmonella
    • E. coli replicates, sticks, releases exotoxins
    • Salmonella induces phagocytosis, is not normal human flora, gotten from contaminated food
    • Both affect ability to make actin
  63. Vibrio
    • Stick to intestinal wall with fimbrae
    • heat stable, heat labile inhibit NaCl ion absorption
    • causes dehydration
  64. E. coli (9)
    • 10587-H7
    • Number is antigens
    • h7=flagella type
    • Virulence factors-pili, exterotoxins
    • Injection of its own receptor into host cell
    • Hijack host cell actin cytoskeleton assembly
    • toxin prevents reabsorption of Na,Cl=imbalance in electrolytes
    • inhibits 60s ribisome in mammals causing decreased protein synthesis and cell death.
  65. Blood in diarrhea
    -Shiga toxin-bacteria shuts down our cell synthesis
  66. Salmonella
    • Indiced cellular uptake (actin)
    • Hijack khost cell by "in-phagosome" releae of host cell "effector molecules"
  67. Selective Medium:
    culture medium that allows the growth of certain types of organisms, while inhibiting the growth of other organisms- dyes in the medium (e.g.: methylene blue in EMB & crystal violet in MacConkey's) or high salt concentration in the medium (e.g.: 7% salt in MSA) inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms
  68. Differential Medium:
    culture medium that allows one to distinguish between or among different microorganisms based on a difference in colony appearance (color, shape,or growth pattern) on the medium.- dyes in the medium (e.g.: eosin/methylene blue in EMB) or pH indicators change the color of the medium as sugars in the medium (e.g.: lactose in EMB & MacConkey's and mannitol in MSA) are fermented to produce acid products
  69. Lysogeny:show up on plate?
    No. It's inside the DNA
  70. Enterics-General Stuff (4):
    • Morphology-Gram negative rods
    • Ecology-gastrointestinal tract
    • Virulence factors-antigens, adherence, toxins (see separate question)
    • Diseases-diarrhea, UTI, septic shock
  71. Enteric Virulence factors (7):
    • O antigen-polysaccharide on LPS
    • K antigen-polysaccharide capsule
    • H antigen flagella
    • Pili-adherence
    • Enterotoxins=exotoxins of enterics
    • enterotoxigenic T: e coli heat labile toxin, heat stable toxin, and cholera toxin all inhibit reabsorption of Na+ and Cl+, stimulte Cl- and bicarbonate
    • enterhemmorrhagic- T. shiga and shiga-like toxins inhibit mammalian 60s ribosomes, protein synth, leads to cell death and blood in stool.
  72. Brucella (7)
    • Morphology-gram negative Rods
    • Ecology species specific to a particular mammal
    • Human diseases-high risk are those who are in contact with meat or contaminated milk products.
    • infection of skin, conjunctiva, lungs, Gi tract
    • Can result in blood and organ invasion with Undulant fever.
    • Aches, chills sweats with a fever that starts in the morning, peaks in the evening.
    • Cattle-spontaneous abortions
  73. Typhus
    • from body lice-epidemic
    • from fleas-endemic
  74. Pasturella Multocida (3)
    • Gram neg cocco-bacillus
    • Zoonotic organism-likes mouths of dogs and cats
    • Causes cellulitis
  75. Chlamydia and Rickettsia
    Rickettsia are organisms with bacteria and virus like characteristics.
  76. Why won't beta lactams work on Chlamidya?
    Because Chlamidya has no peptidoglycan.
  77. Rickettsii
    Escapes from phagosome and replicates in cytoplasm
  78. Chlamidiya (5)
    • primarily infects columnar epithelial cells in mucous membranes--eyes and genitals (rare-lungs)
    • Painful urination and mucu\oid discharge from urethra
    • Will not form colonies because it needs to grow in livingcells.
    • PCR is used to id
    • Urethritis can progress to cervicitis, PID, sterility, epididymitis and infertility.
  79. Trachoma (5)
    • Chlamidiya trachomatis
    • Chronic conjunctivitis (10-15 years)
    • Number 1 cause of preventable blindness in the world
    • children are main reservior
    • Systemic treatment.
  80. Rickettsia rickettsii (4)
    • transmitted by wood and dog ticks in the rocky mountain region
    • Small rodents to you via ticks
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever
    • Proliferation of bbacteria in endotheial cell lining of blood vessels.
  81. Rickettsia prowazekii
    • Transmitted by human b ody lice to you
    • Caused Epidemic typhus during wars, overcrowding
    • 1812-1/3 napoleon's army died
    • WWI-over 3 million deaths
  82. Epidemic
    sudden onset and rapid spread of an infection throughout a large population.
  83. Endemic-
    when a particular infectious disease exists constantly in a certain population
  84. Rickettsia typhi (3)
    • transmitted from small mammals to you by fleas
    • Causes Endemic typhus,
    • also known as flea borne
  85. Mycoplasma (5)
    • Not gram neg or pos
    • No peptidoglycan (beta lactams ineffective)
    • single cholesterol-rich membrane (like Us)
    • Pleomorphic (change) in shape (not coccoid or bacilliform).
    • #1 cause of pneumonia and bronchitis in teens and young adults
  86. Outer surface protein A
    • A virulence factor of berillia bergdorferi
    • causses lyme disease
  87. Bells Palsy
    Half of face paralyzed
  88. IFA
    • Immunoflourescence assay
    • detects flourescent antibodies
  89. Siderophore
    steals iron
  90. Bartonella bacilliformus
    • Facultative intracwellular
    • Hemolytic anemia
  91. Facultative Intracellular
    • Does not have to be inside a cell but likes it
    • Bartonella bacilliformus
  92. Brucella (3)
    • abortis-buffalow, cows
    • Undulant Fever
    • Fever starts in AM, peaks in evening.
  93. Facultative intracellular
    • doesn't have to be inside a cell but likes it.
    • Brucellosis
    • Bartonella bacilliformis
  94. Chlamidya, Rickettsia (4)
    • like bacteria and virus
    • Small, need host cell
    • Chlamidya replication begins with inhibition of phagosomal fusion
    • Rickettsia replication escape from phagosome using an actin tail.
    • Chlamidya has no peptidoglycan so beta-lactams won't work
    • Chlamidiya won't grow colonies because it needs to live inside a cell
  95. SDS Page-
    separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility
  96. Chlamidya life cycle
    • EB -elementary body-spore inactive form-has to get into a cell
    • RB-reticular body-metabolic-uses our ATP too replicate.
  97. Upper/lowercase significance
    lowercase is gene, uppercase is protein
  98. Zoonotic
    Between animals with vectors
  99. Ebola (6)
    • Marburg is related
    • filoviridae
    • RNA negative
    • threadlike pleomorphic
    • Infection Results in Lymphocyte Apotosis!
    • They cause hemorrhagic fever in humans which is characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, shock and death
  100. Treatment of viruses:
    • Natural Killer Cells:
    • Passive transfer of Neutralizing antibodies
    • vaccines to generate neutralizing antibodies
    • treatment with viruses
    • Reoviruses for treating cancer.
  101. Ascaris Worms (4):
    • Cause the Disease Ascariasis (AKA WIMB)
    • Weight loss, stomach pain, and WORMS IN MY BUTT
    • DON't eat the DIRT: it has Ascaris eggs
    • they mate in mammalian colon
  102. Strongylida lungworms
    • cause human MENINGITIS
    • Meningitis with HIGH eosinophils, Hemmorhage, brain swelling, COMA and death,
  103. Enterobious:
    • Pinworms and Threadworms
    • Scotch Tape test
    • Difficulty sleeping due to Anal itching, bloody stool (esp in children)
    • Direct contact with human
  104. Chicken pox/Smallpox
    • Chicken pox lesions trunk
    • SMallpox extremities
  105. Cestoda Tapeworms
    • Invade Intestinal tract and brain
    • Infestation of the Digestive tract Can lead to ???
    • WORLD LEADING CAUSE OF Epileptic seizures due to Infection of BRAIN
    • Eating Infected Beef or Pork with CYSTS
  106. Hookworms (4)
    • are blood sucking intestinal parasites
    • Feet or scratch to blood to lungs to alveoli to pharynx
    • and THEN are swallowed,
    • and to the small intestine, where they attach and live 1-2 years on our blood.
    • Anemia
    • Walking bare foot on infected dog and cat doo, cat scratch.
  107. Pox Viridae
    • Most complex virus in a brick shaped box
    • Family of pox
  108. Filarial worms cause filariasis
    • Transmitted by Mosquito bite and TROPISM for Lymphatic system and Lungs
    • Elephantiasis
  109. Bot Flies
    • lay eggs in mammals like horses and humans
    • Maggots in My HEAD!
  110. River Blindness-
    Black flies transmit Oncacerceriasis worms
  111. Cochliomyia (6):
    • Screw Worms are Maggots of Screw Flies
    • Shiny green-blue body
    • Flies lay eggs in open wounds, that hatch in 12 hrs into maggots then drop off and molt into flies and continue the cycle.
    • Males are sex maniacs
    • Females mate only once.
    • Store sperm and look for open wounds.
  112. Sandflies
    • larvae-sandworms
    • Visceral Leishmaniasis:
    • infected sandfly bites
    • Protozoan parasite infects RBC's, and then other 'viscera' (spleen, liver) causes anemia
    • -----
    • Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
    • (Sandflies also transmit Bartonella bacilliformis, the grant)
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Microbiology 3 for real