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  1. albumin/o
  2. bacteri/o
  3. cyst/o
    bladder or sac
  4. vesic/o
    bladder or sac
  5. dips/o
  6. glomerul/o
    glomerulus (little ball)
  7. gluc/o  glucos/o   glyc/o
  8. ket/o keton/o
    ketone bodies
  9. lith/o
  10. meat/o
    meatus (opening)
  11. nephr/o  ren/o
  12. pub/o
    pubic bone
  13. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  14. py/o
  15. ureter/o
  16. urethr/o
  17. ur/o  urin/o
  18. what do kidneys do? Where are they located?
    they filter blood and secrete impurities to form urine, they are located on each side of the lumbar region half under the ribcage
  19. calyces
    system of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis
  20. nephron
    microscopic functional units of the kidney comprised of kidney cells and capillaries each capable of forming urine
  21. glomerulus
    little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
  22. bowman's capsule
    top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
  23. renal tubule
    stem portion of the nephron
  24. ureter
    tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder, one from each kidney into each side of the bladder
  25. renal pelvis
    basin-like portion of the ureter within the kidney
  26. ureteropelvic junction
    point of connection between the renal pelvis and ureter
  27. urinary blanner
    sac that hold sthe urine
  28. urethra
    single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
  29. urethral meatus
    opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
  30. urine
    fluid produced by the kidneys containing water and waste products
  31. urea and creatinine
    both waste products of the metabolic process
  32. dysuria
    painful urination
  33. enuresis
    to void urine; involuntary discharge  of urine generally due to lack of bladder control
  34. stress urinary incontinence
    incoluntary dishcharge of urine at the time of a cough, sneeze and/or strained exercise
  35. ketone bodies
    waste products of the metabolic process that show up in the urine as a result of abnormal utilization of carbohydrates; often seen in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation  
  36. nocturia
    urination at night
  37. oliguria
    scanty production of urine
  38. polyuria
    excessive urination
  39. urinary retention
    retention of uring owing to the inability to void naturally because of spasm, obstruction etc.
  40. adult polycystic kidney disease
    inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidey causing distruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure- diagnosed in adults presenting with hypertension, kidney enlargement and recurrent UTIs
  41. glomerulonephritis
    form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
  42. hydronephrosis
    dilation and pooling of urine in the renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys caused by an obstruction in the outflow of urine
  43. nephritis
    kidney inflammation
  44. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis
  45. nephrosis
    degenerative disease of the renal tubules
  46. nephrolithiasis
    presence of renal stone or stones cause by mineral buildup
  47. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  48. urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  49. urethro stenosis
    narrowed condition of the urethra
  50. UTI - urinary tract infection
    invasion of pathogenic organisms in the structurs of the urinary tract especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include: dysuria, urinary frequency and malaise
  51. uremia or azotemia
    excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney fauilure
  52. radiography
    xray studies commonly used in urology
  53. intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    xrays of the urinary tract taken after iodine is inhected into the bloodstream and as the contract passes through the kidney it reveals obstruction, trauma, etc.
  54. retrograde pyelogram (RP)
    xray of the upper urinary tract taken after contast medium is inhected up to the kudney by way of a cmall catheter pased though a cystoscope - done to detect the presence of stones or obstruction
  55. urinalysis
    physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine
  56. specific gravity (SpGr)
    measure of the kidney's ability to cocentrate or dilute urine
  57. urobilinogen
    chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine - increased amounts seen in galbladder and liver disease
  58. nitrite
    chemical test used to detect bacteria in the urine
  59. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    blood test to determine the level or urea in the blood - high BUN indicated the kidney's inability to excrete urea
  60. creatinine serum
    test to determine the level or creatinine in the blood - useful in assessing kidney function
  61. creatinine urine
    test to determine the level or creatinine in the urine
  62. creatinine clearance testing
    measurements of the level or creatinine in the blood AND 24-hour urine specimen to determine th rate that creatinine is "cleared" from the blood and kidneys
  63. intracarporeal litotripsy
    method od destroying stones within the urinary tract using electrical energy sidcharges transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope - most commonly used to pulverize bladder stones
  64. nephrotomy
    incision into the kidney
  65. rrhaphy
    suture of an injured body part
  66. nephrectomy
    removal (excision) of the kidney
  67. pyeloplast
    surgincal reconstriction of the renal pelvis
  68. stent placement
    use of a device to hold open vessels or tubes
  69. urinary diversion
    creation of a temporary r permanent diversion of the urinary tract to probide a new passage through which urine exits the body
  70. extracarporeal shock wave lithotripsy
    bombardment of the body from the outside with ultrasound waves to disintegrate stones within the body - commonly used to treat stones above the bladder
  71. hemodualysis
    removal and replacement of blood to the body via a machine that uses a filtrate to remove impurities in the blood
  72. peritoneal dialysis
    method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as a filter; catheter unsertion in the peritoneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
  73. straight catheter
    insertion of a straight tube directly into the meatus, through the urethra and into the bladder to remove urine.
  74. Foley catheter
    indwelling catheter inseted through the urethra into the bladder, includes a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bag - can be temporary or be left in place for an extended period of time.
  75. suprapubic catheter
    indwelling catheter inserted directly into the bladder via an incision in the abdomin above the pubic bone; includes a collection system that allows uring to be drained into a bag - used in patients who require long-term catheterization
  76. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  77. Bx
  78. C&S
    culture and sensitivity
  79. IVP
    intravenous pyelogram
  80. KUB
    kidney, ureter, bladder (pertaining to a region of where to shoot an xray)
  81. UA
  82. UTI
    urinary tract infection
Card Set
medical terminology urinary system
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