# PCAT Gen Chem

 Density equation D= m/v to go from g/cm3 to kg/m3 you need to.. multiply by 1000 to go from kg/m3 to g/cm3  you need to.. divide by 1000 1=cm3 = 1 ___ = 1m3 cc how many mls are in a m3 1.00 x 106 = 1,000,000 how many liters are in a m3? 1000 L the angstrom is equal to _____m 10-10 to do mole to grams you need to... multiply moles by the molecular weight to do grams to moles you need to divide the grams by the molecular weight avogadro's number is = 6.02 x 1023 Moles equation mass in grams / molecular weight all group IA elements have an oxidation number of.. +1 all group IIA elements have an oxidation number of.. +2 all group IIIB elements have an oxidation number of.. +3 Fluorine always has an oxidation number of... -1 Oxygen almost always has an oxidation number of -2 oxygen has a -1 oxidation state in ... peroxides hydrogen has an oxidation number of ____ when bonded to nonmetals +1 hydrogen has an oxidation number of ____ when bonded to metals -1 You can figure out the oxidation number of certain elements in a molecule by... summing the oxidation for all elements to zero then doing the math and dividing by the number of stoms to get the number in terms of their electron configuration F- and Ne are considered to be... isoelectronic transition metals are metals in the ___ block. d-block the elements in the last column of the table are called .... noble gases The aufbau principle is when electrons occupy.. the lowest energy orbitals available Hund's rule states that electrons in the same subshell occupy... available orbitals singly, before pairing up the pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons... in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers energy of a photon equation E=h x f (h= plancks constant & f= frequency)E=h x (c/wavelentgh)  (h= planck's constant & c= speed of light) the first quantum number is the _____ number shell the second quantum number is the _____ number subshell the third quantum number is the _______ number orbital the fourth quantum number is the _____ number spin the atomic number is the number of..... protons the mass number is the number of.... protons + neutrons the mass number of an element can be written as... element - (mass#) mass number goes on what side of the element? top left atomic number goes on what side of the element? bottom left Protons minus electrons = charge charge goes on what side of the element? top right absorption is when you have a ___ energy change + emission is when you have a ___ energy change - value of planck's constant 6.63 x 10^-34 J x s value of the speed of light 3.0 x 10^8 for electron configurations, use the boxes to count how high a level goes. s block goes to ___ p block goes to ___ d block goes to ___ 2610 when doing arrows for the electron configuartions, put in __ arrow(s) at a time 1 when putting in arrows for electron configuration the first arrow is always point in the ___ direction. up when putting in arrows for electron configuration the second arrow is always point in the ___ direction. down Empirical formula uses the samllest number that gives the same ______ of atoms as in its corresponding molecular formula. ratio to reduce a molecular formula, to an empirical formula... divide all the subscripts by their greatest common factor How do you find the percent composition by mass? 1) find the molecular weight of the compound2)divide each elements mass multiplied by the numbers of atoms of that element by the compound mass3) multiply to get denominator to equal 1004) multiply by the same number on top5) convert to percent how do you get the empirical formula using moles? 1) first get the moles of each element (in fractions)2) multiply moles together then simplify answer to lowest fraction3) those numbers are the subscripts the limiting reagent is... the reactive that we run out of first, limits how the reaction produces the product the stoichiometric number is.. the subscript from molecular formulas the stoichiometric number gives what info? the ratios between constiuent atoms, NOT the bonding info in a stochiometric sense, what does the following equation "say" 2Al + 6HCl -> 2AlCl3  + 3H2 2 moles of Al react with 6 moles of HCl to form 2 moles of AlCl3 and 3 moles of H2 periodic trends that begin with the letter "e" increase from... (electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity) left to right and bottom to top periodic trends that DO NOT begin with the letter "e" increase from.... (metallic character, atomic radius, acidity) Right to left and top to bottom Electronegativity is... the chemical property describing an atom's ability to attract and bind to electrons. The atomic radius is... is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms. Ionization energy is... the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous phase (opposite of electronegativity) electron affinity is... ability of an atom to accept an electron metallic character is... how readily an atom can lose an electron acidity is ... a measure of how well a compound donates protons, accepts electrons or lowers the pH in a Formal charge formula: FC= (Column #)-(# of bonds connected to atom) -(# of lone paired electrons) A bond is polar if... the electron density between the two nuclei is uneven A molecule that DONATES a pair of electrons is considered to be a lewis... Lewis base A molecule that ACCEPTS a pair of electrons is considered to be a lewis... Lewis Acid what are the three types of van der Waals interactions? Dipole forces, hydrogen bonding, and london forces Hydrogen can create hydrogen bonds with which atoms? N, O or F A + B --> AB rxn type? synthesis AB -> A + B rxn type? Decomposition AB -> AX + B rxn type? Single-replacement AX + BY -> AY + BX rxn type? Double replacement an oxidizing agent is... An agent that oxidizes and is reduced a reducing agent is... an agent that reduces and is oxidized  a reducing agent, gives up electrons to be... oxidized an oxidizing agent accepts electrons to be... reduced The higher the kinetic energy of molecules, the ______ it's entropy. greater direct conversion from solid to gas is... sublimation direct conversion from gas to solid is.. deposition conversion from liquid to gas vaporization (boiling) conversion from gas to liquid condensation conversion from liquid to solid is.. crsytallization (freezing) conversion from solid to liquid is... fusion (melting) the phase changes that go from a lower energy to a higher energy state are... melting, vaporization, sublimation the phase changes that go from a higher energy to a lower energy state are... deposition, condensation and freezing exothermic phase changes are... deposition, freezing and condensation endothermic phase changes are... melting, vaporization, sublimation heat added or released (heat capacity) equation: q=mc(delta)T Triple point is... the temperature and pressur at  which all the phases exist simultaneously supercritical fluid is... substance in which, liquid and gas phases are no longer distinct the critical point is... the end of the liquid-gas boundary Temperature is... a function of the average translational kinetic energy of the molecule in a system absolute zero is... the lowest possible temperature how do you convert farenheit to celsius? C= (F-32) x (5/9) how do you convert celsius to farenheit? F= (C x 9/5) + 32 how do you convert celsius to kelvin? K= C + 273.15 how do you convert Kelvin to celsius? C= K-273.15 Pressure formula with force is? P=F/a (force per unit area) P=(N/m2)=? Pascals What is the formula for pascals? Pa= (N/m2) 1 atm = ___ mmHg 760 760mmHg = ___ atm 1 1 atm= ___torr 760 760 torr = _____ Pa 1.013 x 105 Pa 1 atm = ___ Pa 1.013 x 105 Pa 1 atm = ___ torr = ___mmHg= ____Pa 7607601.013 x 105 STP is... Standard temperature Pressure STP is defined as... 0o Celsius and 760 torr Kinetic energy of gases formula= KE= (1/2)mv2 There is no loss of _______during collisions in gases kinetic energy in the kinetic energy of gases there are no _________ forces between the particles. attractive/repulsive the average kinetic energy of the particles is ____________ to the absolute temperature of the particles directly proportional As temperature decreases in a gas the kinetic energy ______. decreases 1 atm = ___pa (in sci. notation) 1.01 x 105 Gauge pressure formula... (Absolute Pressure - Atmospheric Pressure) The gauge pressure tells you... how much above the absolute pressure is than the atmosphereic pressure As pressure goes up in a gas, the volume _______ goes down The actual volume of gas is equal to... the volume of the container plus the excluded volume excluded volume is... The volume occupied by the gas molecules themselves the actual volume occupied by a gas is always ______ than or equal to the volume calculated by the ideal gas law. greater The real pressure is always _____ than the ideal pressure less than The real volume is always _____ than the ideal volume less than What is the boyle's law ? under constant temperature and a constnat number of moles of gas, the product of pressure and volume is a constant. what is boyles law equation? P1V1=P2V2 in boyles law, pressure and volume are ______ proportional inversely in boyles law, P is proportional to.... 1/V in boyles law, V is proportional to.... 1/P what is charles' law? for ideal gases under constant pressure and a constant number of moles of gas V/T is constant what is the formula for charles law? V1T2 = V2T1 In charles law V is directly proportional to ... T In charles' law, T is directly proportional to... V What is the formula for Gay-Lussac's Law? P1T2 = P2T1 in Gay-Lussac's law P is directly proportional to... T in Gay-Lussac's law T is directly proportional to... P The combined gas law equation= P1V1T2=P2V2T1 Avagadro's hypothesis equation= V1n2 = V2n1 The ideal gas law formula= PV=nRT R, the universal gas constant is... 0.0821 L-atm/K-mol Graham's law of effusion formula = (rate of effusion of Gas A/Rate of effuusion of Gas B)=[square root (molar mass of gas B/molar mass of gas A)] The more stable the carbonium ion, the more easily it is.... formed. the stability of a carbonium ion is greatly increased by .... charge dispersal a teritary carbonium ion is more stable than a secondary or primary carbonium ion because it has... three alkyl groups Which type of reaction is occurring when a metal undergoes corrosion? oxidation-reduction How many milliosmols of particles does 1 mole of sodium chloride present? 2 mOsm (1 mOsm of Na and 1 mOsm of Cl) What statement best describes how a salt bridge maintains electrical neutrality in the half cells of an electrochemical cell? It permits the migration of ions A salt bridge between half cells prevents... the solutions from mixing but allows the ions to move (migrate) from one half cell to the other.. Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution Heat flow is always from _____ temperature to ____ temperature. high low STP a mole of gas occupies ______ liters... 22.4 When the external pressure is 101.3 kPa torr, water will boil at what temperature? 100oC When the vapor pressure of water is 101.3 kPa, the temperature is ..... 100°C When the atmospheric pressure above a liquid equals its vapor pressure, the liquid will... boil If the vapor pressure was 50 kPa, water would boil at about... 82°C molarity equation= (moles of solute / liter of solution) what alkaline-earth metal is found in gypsum? calcium What causes energy to be released in a nuclear reaction? fusion and fission Atomic fusion is the process of... combining atoms to form elements of higher atomic weight atomic fission is the process of... splitting an atomic nucleus Whats the formula for baking soda? NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate When a substance is oxidized, it acts as... a reducing agent A particle accelerator can increase the kinetic energy of... an alpha particle and a beta particle What is the electronic distribution in the orbitals of an oxygen atom? 1s22s22p4 chlorine and fluorine are _____ at STP. gases Iodine is a _____ at STP. solid Bromine is a _______ at STP liquid As the pressure of a gas at 2 atm is changed to 1 atm at constant temperature, the volume of the gas... increases what is a property of a reaction that has reached equilibrium? The rate of the forward reaction is equal to than the rate of the reverse reaction. Equilibrium means ...... equal reaction rates If HgO is mercuric oxide, what is the symbol of mercurous oxide? Hg2O A battery consists of which type of cells electrochemical What substance is made up of monomers joined together in long chains? protein An electron has the same mass as a .... beta particle. An alpha particle has a mass of... 4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons) A proton has the same mass as a... neutron An atom of which of the following elements has the greatest ability to attract electrons? A. Silicon. B. Sulfur. C. Nitrogen. D. Chlorine. chlorine(most electronegative) At STP, which substance is the best conductor of electricity? any metal The best conductors of electricity are... metals Elements that lose electrons form positive ions that are _______ than atoms of the same element. smaller What statement explains why the speed of some chemical reactions is increased when the surface area of the reactant is increased? This change exposes more reactant particles to a possible collision. What particle cannot be accelerated in a magnetic field? neutron Only _______ particles can be accelerated in a magnetic field charged thermodynamics ________ the rate of reaction do not affect the arrhenius equation is... The value of k is unique to each reaction at a given.... temperature The value of k will change if _________ is changed the temperature The value of k _________ change with time does not the value of k in not dependent on the concentrations of either _________ or _________. reactants or products the value of k must be determined ____________. experimentally the units of k depend on the overall _________________. order of reaction catalysts operate by altering.... the activation energy of a reaction a catalyst can ________ or ______ a reaction speed up or slow down a catalyst that is used to slow down a reaction is called.... an inhibitory catalyst or an inhibitor a catalyst is niether consumed nor _________ during the course of a reaction. produced a homogenous catalyst is... a catalyst that exists in the same phase as the reactants a hetereogenous catalyst can also be called a... contact catalyst a heterogenous catalyst is.. a catalyst that exists in a different phase than the reactants enzymes are... proteins that act as homogenous catalysts for specific biochemical reactions The reaction quotient gives... the ratio of products to reactants at equilibrium. (gives the same ratio at all times other than equilibrium) if Keq >> 1.... products are favored over reactants if Keq ≈ 1.... neither reactants nor products or favored if Keq << 1..... reactants are favored over products Q>Keq means... Products in excess Q=Keq means.... at equilibrium Q 7 for a weak base titrated with a strong acid, the equivalence point will occur at... pH < 7 for a strong acid titrated with a strong base, or vice versa, the equivalence point will occur at... pH = 7 the pH at half equivalence is equal to... the pKa Authorcooxcooxbananas ID163959 Card SetPCAT Gen Chem DescriptionPCAT Gen Chem Updated2012-09-25T16:30:19Z Show Answers