1. Military Alliance´╗┐:
    An agreement between two or more sovereign states concerning the actions each will take in the event that a specified military contingency occurs

  2. 3 Types of Alliance Agreements
    • Mutual defense agreements
    • -Promise to come to signatories defense

    • Neutrality/Non-aggression agreement
    • -Promise not to join against

    • Consultation agreements(ententes)
    • -Promise to consult with one another on a course of action
  3. Purposes of Alliances: Alliances can be:
    -Offensive or defensive

    -Large or small

    -Focused on narrow or broad issues

    -Long or short duration
  4. Different types of alliances suggests that
    alliances are formed for different reasons
  5. Structural theories view alliances as
    as quick, inexpensive ways of accumulating power or security
  6. Why do militarily strong states form alliances with obviously weak states?
    One explanation for this puzzle is Security-Autonomy Tradeoff Theory (Morrow)
  7. Security-Autonomy Tradeoff Theory:
    • Leaders are interested in maintaining sufficient security and sufficient autonomy
    • -security: so they do not have to worry about changes to the international status quo
    • -autonomy: enough freedom of action that one can exploit favorable shifts in the status quo to enhance their influence
  8. Security- Autonomy Tradeoff: Increased autonomy may come at the cost of
    of a loss of security & increased security may come at the cost of a loss autonomy
  9. Security- Autonomy Tradeoff: Leaders make tradeoffs depending on
    their domestic and international circumstances
  10. Security- Autonomy Tradeoff: Great powers...
    • have a lot of security
    • -Will not gain much from additional security, but could benefit from more autonomy
    • -May be willing to trade away some security for more autonomy by aligning with weaker states
  11. Security- Autonomy Tradeoff: Smaller states...
    • do not have a lot of security
    • -May be willing to trade away some autonomy for more security by aligning with more powerful states
  12. Security- Autonomy Tradeoff: Smaller states in an alliance enhance their security, while more powerful states gain more autonomy
    • Smaller states in an alliance enhance their security, while more powerful states gain more autonomy
    • -Each gains on the dimension more beneficial to its overall well-being
    • -Each sacrifices on the dimension less important to its overall well-being
  13. asymmetric alliance:
    • -The status quo with the alliance makes both better off than the status quo without the alliance
    • -one state gives up security, the other gives up autonomy
  14. Symmetric alliance:
    both gain on the same dimension
  15. Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Alliances
    The security-autonomy tradeoff suggests that although it is not impossible to form a symmetric alliance, doing so is more difficult than forming an asymmetric alliance
  16. Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Alliances, Empirically
    -Empirically, on average, asymmetric alliances last 15.7 years and symmetric alliances last 12.2 years
  17. When Are Alliances Reliable?
    • Realist view: Alliances are only reliable if they are part of the balance of power
    • -Alliances are short-term arrangements
    • -Under anarchy, cannot rely on allies for defense
    • -1816-1965: alliances were not honored 73% of the time when an attack took place
  18. But, if alliances are generally reliable, we...
    should expect to observe that most alliances are not honored when an attack takes place
  19. Only alliances that are perceived to be unreliable are tested
    • Only alliances that are perceived to be unreliable are tested
    • -There is a selection bias in the inferences drawn from the historical record
    • -Deterred attacks leave no historical record
  20. Reliable alliances succeed in
    • deterring attacks and so never get tested
    • -Attack when you don’t expect a rival’s allies to honor their commitments
  21. Alliances(4):
    • -Alliance membership is fluid
    • -Alliances are neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for coordination between states
    • -Allies sometimes fight one another
    • -Alliances with more democratic members last longer than alliances with fewer democratic members
Card Set
pol sci