Child Development Test 3

  1. How is Puberty defined?

    Pg 407
    Puberty - the time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. 

    Puberty usually lasts three to five years  Many more years are required to achieve Psychosocial Maturity
  2. When puberty begins what part of the brain sets the change in action?

    Pg 408
  3. What are the gonads or sex glands in males?

    Pg 409
  4. What are the gonads or sex glands in females?

    Pg 409
  5. What sex is estrogen related to when sexual changes occur?

    Pg 409
  6. What sex is testosterone related to when sexual changes occur?

    Pg 409
  7. During puberty testosterone increases in?
    Both males and females
  8. What is Menarche?

    Pg 407
    Menarche is a girl's first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation.

    Pregancy is biologically possible, ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche.
  9. What is Spermarche?

    PG 407
    Spermarche is a boy's first ejaculation of sperm.  Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. 

    Spermarche may occur durng sleep (in a wet dream) or via direct stimulation.
  10. What factors affect the timing of puberty?

    Pg 411
    Genes, body (fat) size, hormones, and stress
  11. What age does puberty in a typically begin for girls?

    Pg 408
    Nine on average
  12. What age does puberty in a typically begin for boys?

    Pg 408
    Ten on average
  13. What is the first sign of puberty in a typical girl?

    Pg 407
    The first sign of puberty in a typical girl is the onset of breast growth (nipples/budding)
  14. What is the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty for girls?

    Pg 408
    Study Guide: Breast development, growth spurt, and Menarche

    Book: Growth of nipples, initial pubic hair, then a peak growth spurt, widening of of the hips, the first menstrual period (menarche), final pubic-hair pattern, and full breast development
  15. What is the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty for boys?

    Pg 408
    Growth of the Testes, initial pubic-hair growth, growth of the penis, first ejaculation of seminal fluid (spermarche), appearance of facial hair, peak growth spurt, deepening of the voice and final pubic-hair growth
  16. What is a growth spurt?

    Pg 421
    The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty.  Each body part increases in size on a schedule:  Weight usually precedes height, and growth of the limbs precedes growth of the torso.
  17. During the growth spurt what is the last part of the body to grow?

    Pg 421
    The torso
  18. What can increased endurance in puberty can be attributed?

    Pg 421
    Increased endurance is puberty can be attributed to the growth of the heart and lungs.
  19. Hormonal change during puberty can affect?

    Pg 425
    Hormonal change during puberty can affect the sleep cycle.
  20. What is the cause of adolescent acne?
    Increased activity of oil and sweat glands
  21. If our culture were responsive to the physical changes occurring in adolescence what time would school begin and end?

    Pg 426
    10 AM - 5 PM
  22. What is the greatest effect on an adolescent's beard growth?

    Pg 422
  23. The fact that today about a quarter of both boys and girls have had sexual intercourse by age 14 means?

    Pg 424
    That the "Double Standard" has died.
  24. Does an early maturer or late maturer find puberty most difficult? (Girls who mature early and boys who mature late)

    Pg 415 & Pg 436 (summary item 5.)
    Early maturing girls 

    Think about the early-maturing girl, if she has visible breast at age 10, the boys in her class tease her; they are distressed by the sexual creature in their midst.  She must fit her womanly body into a school chair designed for younger childen, and may hide her breasts in large T-shirts and bulky sweaters and refuse to undress for gym.  Early-maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem, more depression, and poorer body imagine that later maturing girls.  They even exercise less than their classmates.  Early-maturing girls often have boyfriends who are several years older than they are which adds status and protects against loneliness but also brings complications, somethime including drug and alcohol use. They are isolated from their "on time maturing" peers and tend to associate with older adolescents.  This increases their emotional distress.  Early puberty not only correlates with drug use but also increases the risk of violent victimization.  They are more likely to enter abusive relationships than other girls for all these reasons girls are better off to if they begin puberty on time or late
  25. What is anorexia nervosa?

    Pg 418
    Anorexia Nervosa - an eating disorder characerized by self-starvation.  Affected individuals voluntarily under eat and often over exercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition.

    Anorexia can be fatal
  26. What is the amout of tobacco usage by girls as compared to boys?

    Pg 433
    Girls use tobacco as much as boys.
  27. Why is drinking even a more harmful in adolescence than in adulthood?
    It causes damage to the brain, impairs judgment, and loosens inhibitions
  28. In what stage of Cognitive Development did Piaget place those in Adolscent?  

    Pg 446
    Formal Operational.   

    Formal Operational thought may be universally possible after age 11 but is not universally used.
  29. In what is adolescent egocentrism?

    Pg 443
    A characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads yound people (10 to 13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
  30. Three changes in adolescent cognition are?
    Cognitive skills, logic, and intuitive thought
  31. What is an invincibility fable?

    Pg 444
    Invincibility Fable - An adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high speed driving.
  32. What is a Personal Fable?

    Pg 444
    Personal Fable - An aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone's else.
  33. What is the definition of an "Imaginary Audience"?

    Pg 445
    The other people who, in an adolescent's eqocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas and behavior.  This belief makes many teenagers very self conscious
  34. What are some of the disadvantages of teens working while going to school?

    Pg 477
    Study Sheet - They have lower grades have poorer relationships with parents and friends and spend money on entertainment, clothes, cars, alcohol and drugs.

    Book - Teen working can :Weakens Identity information, family relationships, academic achievement, and career success.   Instead of learning "the value of a dollar" (phrase adults use) many working adolescents spend their money on drugs, clothes, cars, and entertainment.
  35. What is the definition of Identity? 

    Pg 472
    Who am I?

    Who a person understands who or she is as a unique individual in accord with past experiences and future plans
  36. Of What does Erikson's stage "Identity vs. Role Confusion" consist?

    Pg 472
    Goal/crisis is forming a coherent identity

    Erikson's term for the fifth stage of development, in which the persons tries to figure out "Who Am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.

    Erikson identifed four aspects of Identity: religion, sex, politics, and vocation.
  37. The "Pleasing False Self" typically arises from?
    The pleasing false self typically arises from a desire to please others.

    • The pleasing false self arises from a wish to impress or please others. Quite common. Better than false self arising from rejection.
  38. What is Foreclosure?

     Pg 472
    Foreclosure - Erikson's term fro premature identity formation, which occurs when a adolescent adopts parents' or society's roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis.
  39. What is a Moratorium?

     Pg 473
    Moratorium - A socially acceptable way for adolescents to postpone identity achievement.  going to college is a common example.
  40. What are some reasons that the suicide rate has doubled since 1960?

    Pg 495
    Availability of lethal means, Lack of parental supervision, and a higher use of alcohol and other drugs

    Book: Availability of guns, lack of parental supervision, availability of Alcohol and other drugs, a culture that condones suicide.
  41. What do parent-child arguments indicate in the teen years?

    Pg 478
    Children's desire to make their own decisions
  42. Virtually every aspect of an adolescent's behavior is directly affected by ___________?

    Pg 478
    His or her family.
  43. Adolescents tend to benefit from homes that have _______________________?

    Pg 478
    Structure and rules.
  44. What is peer pressure?

    Pg 481
    Peer Pressure - Encouragement to conform to one's friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude, often a positive force, but usually considered a negative one, as when adolescent peers encourage on another to defy adult authority.
  45. It takes _____ for the growth and sexual maturation associated with puberty to be completed
    Time -- Sometimes many years
  46. Females tend to have more ___ and males more ______.
    • Females  - Fat
    • Males - Muscle
  47. Young adolescent pregnancy slows down or stops ___________, ______________, and ____________ for the mother-to-be.
    growth in height, redistribution of weight, increases in bone density
  48. For most young people the teenage years are?
    Happy ones
Card Set
Child Development Test 3
Flash cards to prepare for TCC class Psychology 2308/Child Growth and Development as taught by Annette Nolte.