1. What are the hallmarks of caner cells?
    • Self-sufficiency in growth signals or response
    • Insensitivity to growth inhibitory (antigrowth) signals
    • Evasion of programmed cell death (apoptosis)
    • Limitless replicative potential
    • Sustained angiogenesis (stimulation of blood vessel growth)
    • Tissue invasion and metastasis
  2. What are the roles of Lab testing?
    • Detection-Screening
    • Confirmation
    • Classification and staging
    • Monitoring
  3. What is needed for confirmation?
    • Confirmatory lab results should have 100% diagnostic specificity
    • No false + results
    • Examples:
    • bone marrow examination for leukemia
    • urinary alpha-fetoprotein for testicular cancer
  4. What is needed for classification and staging?
    • Classification describes the degree of tumor differentiation.
    • Well differentiated
    • Moderately well differentiated
    • Poorly differentiated (are more aggressive and have poor prognosis)
  5. What are the tumor marker characteristics?
    • They should predict a higher or lower risk for eventual development of recurrence.
    • They should change as the current status of the tumor changes over time
    • They should precede and predict recurrences before they are clinically detectable.
  6. What are the tumor markers for oncofetal proteins?
    • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
    • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    • SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen
  7. What are the tumor markers for Mucin Glycoproteins (carbohydrate antigen)?
    • CA-125
    • CA-19-9
    • CA-15-3
    • CA-27-29
  8. What are the tumor markers for Enzymes?
    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  9. What are the tumor markers for Hormones or hormone receptors?
    • ACTH and all other endocrine hormones
    • Breast estrogen and progesterone receptors
  10. What are the tumor markers for cell surface protiens?
  11. What are the tumor markers for cellular markers?
    • Oncogenesm such as N-ras
    • Suppressor genes, such as p53
    • BRCA1 and BRCA2
    • c-erB-3 (HER-2)/neu
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