CC-The Gonads

  1. What are the ovarian hormones?
    • Estrogens
    • Progestagens
    • Androgens
  2. What does the hormone estrogen do?
    • Principle estrogen secreted by ovaries is estradiol-17 alpha
    • They promote development of female secondary sex characteristics, uterine growth, thickening of vaginal mucosa, thinning of cervical mucus, and development of breast ductal system.
  3. What are the different types of progestagens?
    • Pregnenolone
    • Progesterone
    • 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP)
  4. What is pregnenolone?
    Precursor for all ovarian steroid hormones
  5. What does progesterone do?
    • Produced by corpus lutem
    • Important fo implantation of fertilized ovum and maintenance of early pregnancy
  6. What does 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) do?
    has little or no biological activity
  7. What does the hormone androgen do?
    • The ovarian cells produce small amounts of this hormone
    • The different types of androgens are:
    • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
    • Androstenedione
    • Testosterone
    • Dihydrotestosterone
  8. What are some pathological states?
    • Amenorrhea (absence of bleeding)
    • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) (uterine bleeding during anovulatory cycles)
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (characterized by infertility, hirsutism, obesity, menstrual disturbances
    • Androgen excess
    • Ovarian hyperfunction (ovarian neoplasms)
  9. What is the main hormone for the male?
  10. What are other male hormones?
    • All these are made by the testes in small amounts
    • Dihydrotestosterone
    • Androstenedione
    • 17-hydroxyprogesterone
    • Progesteron
    • Estradiol
    • Pregenolone
  11. What are pathological states for the male?
    • Hypogonadism (failure of testes to produce testosterone, spermatozoa or both
    • Testicular hyperfunction (testicular tumors)
    • Erectile dysfunction
  12. What is infertility and the factors causing it?
    • The involuntary inability to conceive
    • Factors:
    • Female factors 40%
    • Male factors 40%
    • Combined male and female factors 10%
    • Unexplained factors 10%
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CC-The Gonads