What is the job of the endocrine glands?
To secrete chemicals in the blood called hormones
Paracrine glands are found in the stomach and local tissue - what is one type/example?
What are cells acted on by hormones?
Target Organ Cells
What is the difference between a nonsteroid hormone and a steroid hormone?
- A nonsteroid hormone are made of protiens and have to bind to receptors found on the cell membrane (1st messanger to 2nd messanger)
- A steroid hormone enters target cells and directly act with DNA in the nucleus
What is hormone secretion controlled by?
What is a negative feedback and one example?
Mechanisms that reverse the direction of change in a physiologic system - example. insilin
What is a positive feedback and one example?
(uncommon) mechanisms that amplify physiologic changes - example. oxytocin
Give an example of a paracrine factor
Where is the pituitary gland found?
Attached to the hypothalamus - in the center of the brain, if you need surgery on it, it must be through the nose
What are the two types of pituitary glands and their alternative names?
- Anterior Pituitary Gland - adenohypophysis
- Posterior Pituitary Gland - neurohypophysis
What are the 7 major hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?
- TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
- ACTH - Adrenocorticorticotropic Hormone
- FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone
- LH - Lutenizing Hormone
- GH - Growth Hormone
- PH - Prolactin Hormone
- MSH - Melanocytic Stimulating Hormone
What is the function of the TSH?
stimulates growth in the thyroid gland stimulates it to secrete the thyroid hormone
What is the function of the ACTH?
stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and stimulates it to secrete glucocorticoids
What is the function of the FSH
initiates growth of the ovarian follicles in the ovaries and stimulates 1 or more follice to develop to the stage of maturity or ovulation. Also stimulates estrogen to develop follicles and sperm production.
What is the function of the LH?
- acts with FSH to stimulate the estrogen secretion and follicle growth - causing ovulation.
- this causes lutenation of the ruptured follicle and stimulates progesterone secretion by the corpus lutem
What is the function of the GH?
- stimulates growth by accelerating protien and anabolism.
- also accelerates fat catabolism and slows glucose catabolism
When the GH slows glucose catabolism, this tends to increase your blood glucose level higher than normal called what?
What is the function of the prolactin?
stimulates breast development during pregnancy and the secretion of milk after the delivery
What are the major hormones of the posterior putuitary gland?
- ADH -antidiuretic hormone
What is the function of the ADH?
accelerates the water absorbtion from urine in the kidney tubules into the blood, decresing urine secretion
What is the function of the oxytocin?
- stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract
- initiates labor
- helps breast create milk in ducts
The actual production of the ADH and oxytocin are in the _____?
hypothalamus and then passed into the pituitary gland
What controls the secretion and release of the posterior pituitary glands?
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
controls the body's homeostasis (temperature, appetite, and thirst)
What are the names of the 2 hormones produced in the thyroid gland?
- Thyroid hormone
- Calcitonin (decreases blood calcium, the calcium gets absorbed by bone causing bone build up)
What is the name of the hormone produced in the parathyroid gland?
PTH (Parathyroid Hormone) which increases blood calcium, causing bone breakdown from calcium being took from bone
What are the hormones produced in the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex)?
- Sex Hormones
What is another name for hydrocortisone (Cortisol) and it's function?
GC - Glucocorticoid - It helps maintain normal glucose concentration by increasing gluconeogenesis
What is another name for Mineralocorticoids and it's function?
Aldosterone - it increases sodium and decreases potassium
What is the function of gluconeogenesis?
the formation of "new" glucose from amino acids produced by the breakdown of protiens & the conversion to glucose of fatty acids
What are the hormones released in the Adrenal Medulla and their functions?
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine - their function is to help the body resist stress
What are the hormones of the Pancreatic Islets and what cells are they secreted by?
- Glucogen - secreted by alpha cells
- Insulin - secreted by beta cells
What are the functions of glucogen and insulin?
- Glucogen increases the blood glucose level by accelerating liver glycogenolysis
- Insulin decreases the blood glucose level by accelerating the movement of glucose out of the blood and into cells which increases glucose metabolism by cells
What are the two structures of the female sex gland (ovaries) that secrete hormones (estrogen)?
the Ovarian Follicles and the Corpus Luteum
What is the structure of the male sex gland (testies) that secrete hormones (testosterone)?
the Interstitial Cells
What is the hormone secreted from the Thymus and it's function?
Thymosin - helps with the body's immune system
Where is the pineal gland located, nickname, function, and what does it secrete?
- located near the roof of the 3rd ventricle of the brain
- nickname is "third eye"
- function is helping the amount of light entering the eyes
- secretes melatonin
What is the funtion of melatonin?
regulates the body's internal clock and inhibits ovarian activity
What hormone does the atrial wall of the heart secrete?
ANH - atrial natriuretic hormone
What is blood minus it's cells?
On average how much blood is in our bodies?
4 - 6 L on average
What elements are formed in blood?
- RBC - erythrocytes
- WBC- leukocytes
- Platelets (thrombocytes)
What are the two types of leukocytes and examples?
- Granular - neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
- Nongranular - lymphocytes and monocytes
What is the function of RBC's?
to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is the red pigment in the blood and what does it do?
hemoglobin - carries oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
What is the function of WBC's?
defense, helps with immunity
What is an anticoagulant which keeps a clot from getting too big?
What blood type is the universal recipient?
What blood type is the universal donor?
What is an antigen?
protiens that determine "self" from "foreign"