Name the 3 levels of supervision and breifly describe them.
- Immediate supervision: vet in same room during a procedure
- Direct supervision: vet on premises and readily available
- Indirect supervision: vet not on premises but tech is able to communicate with them
What are the restrictions of a VT?
Diagnosing, performing surgery, giving a prognosis, and initiating therapy/prescribing medications
What are the technician's roles in pharmacology?
- Understanding the mechanisms of drug actions
- Knowing drug names (generic & trade) and routes of admin.
- Understanding and communicating possible side effects of medications administered
- Inducing, maintaining and monitoring anesthesia
- Answering clients Q's about meds
Generic names are also called ___________, while trade names are also called ________________
What is a dose?
The amount of drug administered @ 1x to a patient
What is a dosage?
- The general amount any patient should be given
- Ex: 10mg/kg, 1ml/lb, etc
What is a side effect?
The effect of a drug other than its intended beneficial effect, ranging from mild to severe
What is a contraindication? An indication?
Circumstances in which a drug should not be used; circumstances which a drug should be used
Who determines whether a drug is OTC or Rx?
FDA (Food & drug administration)
What is a Rx drug?
One that is potentially toxic if misused or easily misuded
When can a Rx medication be dispensed?
Upon lawful order of the veterinarian
What phrase must be on the Rx label?
"Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian"
VT's cannot legally write prescriptions, but they can do what?
Fill drug orders and dispense medications on vet instruction
Can techs fill drug orders from another practice? Why?
No because they would be filling the role of a pharmacist
What must a valid Rx contain?
- Name of vet hospital or vet
- Address & telephone of vet hospital
- Date written
- Client name & address
- Species of animal (name optional)
- Rx symbol
- Drug name & concentration
- Sig: direction of admin
- Vet signature
- DEA registration # for controlled substances
Rx labels must contain what?
- Name, address & telephone # of vet hospital or vet
- Name of client & address
- ID of animal
- Drug name, concentration and # of units dispensed
- Clear instruction of dosage, frequency, route of admin and duration of tx
- Cautionary statements
- Withdrawal or discard times
What do these abbreviations mean?
- 2x a day/every 12 hrs
- 4x a day/every 6 hrs
- Every other day/every 48 hrs
- 1x a day/every 24 hrs
- 3x a day/every 8 hrs
- As needed
What do the abbreviations mean?
- Cubic centimeters
What do the abbreviations mean?
- Per os/by mouth
- R ear/L ear/both ears
- R eye/L eye/both eyes
Dispensing containers are measure in what unit?
Dispensing containers should be __________ to prevent ingestion by children, unless client is elderly. It is then the VTs legal obligation to do what?
Child proof; inform the client that the container is not child proof and to keep the vial out of reach of children
Why is management of inventory drugs important?
- Inventory is 2nd highest expense after payroll
- Knowlegde of frequently prescribed and dispensed drugs prevents clinic from running out
- Expired drugs are not safe
- Inappropriately stored drugs can degenerate and become inactive
What does ICM stand for? What are their duties?
- Inventory control manager is responsible for:
- Keeping adequate supply of all products used, dispensed, and sold
- Organizing inventory
- Knowing when to reorder
- Kepping accurate inventory records
- Ordering, receiving and inspecting shipments
- Maintaining price/price updates of items
- Updating Rabies vx info in computer (serial #, expiration date, etc so rabies certificates are correct)
When rotating inventory, what should be place at the front of the shelf?
The earliest expiration date
What are order requests?
Central area to keep track of supplies which are low
Why should a written description of the order be kept?
To compare with shipments received
What requirements must the veterinary staff withhold when dealing with controlled substances?
- Ensuring they are in locked cabinets
- Accurate record keeping of amounts used/wasted in the controlled substance log book
- Accurate filling out of DEA order forms
When filling out a DEA form, what precautions must be taken?
- Write legibly
- Do not scratch out or use white out
- Use correct spelling & proper drug concentrations
- Get vets signature
How many classes of cotrolled substances are there? Which class is not approved for medical use?
5; class 1
What are examples of C1 drugs?
CII drugs are considered high risk for what? Name 2 class II drugs.
- High potential of abuse that can lead to severe physical and psychiological dependence
- Morphine, Pentobarbitol
What potential do CIII drugs have? Name 2 CIII drugs.
- Some potential for abuse that may lead to moderate physical and psychological dependence
- Ketamine, Telazol
What can Ketamine be cocktailed with? What is it used for?
Diazepam; general anesthesia induction
CIV drugs have what potential for abuse? Give examples of CIV drugs.
- Low potential and limited physical and psychological dependence
- Butrophanol, Phenobarbital, Diazepam
What is Butorphanol used for?
C-V drugs have what potential for abuse?
What is pharmacology?
The study of drugs
What is a drug?
Any chemical agent that affects the living processes and that may prevent, diagnose, or treat disease
What is the half-life?
Time required for a serum concentration to decrease 50%
Define peak serum concentration.
Point of maximum concentration of drug on time vs serum concentration curve
Define trough serum concentration
Minimum drug serum concentration during a dosing interval
Define what a therapeutic window is
The range of drug serum concentration associated with high degree of efficiency and low risk of undesired dose-related adverse reactions
What is a toxic dose?
Dose greater than the upper limit of the therapeutic range
What is the therapeutic index? What is it's abbreviation?
- Ratio b/w toxic dose and therapeutic dose of a drug where the drug is considered safe to use for a particular tx
What is absorption?
The uptake of substances across tissues
What factors can affect absorption?
- Stomach content volume
- Blood flow to inj site
- Heat & massage
- Route of admin
What CII drug in the form of a patch is contraindicated with heat? What happens when heat is applied?
- Heat increases the absorption of the drug and causes toxicity