fungal diseases

  1. Fungi eukaryotes are divided into 2 categories
    • Yeast
    • Hyphae
  2. Yeast (fungi)
    • are unicellular
    • and reproduce asexually via budding or fission
  3. Hyphae(fungi)
    • are multicellular
    • and reproduce sexually or asexually
  4. Fungi characteristics
    • Dimorphism( comfounds classification)
    • rigid cell walls (consist of chitin)
    • body(thallus) consist of mycelium
    • fruiting bodies
  5. mycelium
    loosely organized masses of filaments called hyphae
  6. importance of Fungi
    • they are chemoheteropods
    • fermentation abilities are utilized in food industry and medical applications (penacillin)
    • extracellulary digest food and obtain nutrients and absorption
    • most are saprophyted (ex. decomposers)
    • some form symbiotic relationships with plants (mycorinisae)
  7. Pathogenis Fungi are
    • often faculative, rarely obligated
    • few are human pathogens
  8. Reguirement of pathogenic Fungi
    • Proximity to host (need to gain access to host)
    • environmental resorvior is spores or normal flora
    • ability to adhere and penetrate cells and resist removal
    • ability to digest and absorb nutrients from host
  9. Human immune defensed against pathogenic fungi include:
    • frequent epithelial cell turnover( skin naturally shed)
    • pH of skin and mucosa
    • normal flora will fight it off
    • cilia will prevent it from entering the respiratory tract
    • Treatments are often toxic to human and fungal cells
  10. Superfcial fungal diseases
    • are common fungal diseases that effect only keratinized tissue
    • epidermal layer
    • hair
    • nails
    • urogenital(vaginitis,yeast infection) ,
    • oral(thrush,oropharyngeal),
    • skin,
    • fingernails.
  11. Cutaneous fungal infections
    usually involve dermophytes affecting the epidermis
  12. subcutaneous fungal infections
    affects the skin layers beneath the epidermis (usually due to punctures or skin wounds) tissue, bones, and lymphatics
  13. Systemic fungal diseases
    • are rare and originate in the lungs and then invade other organs, kidneys, liver, spleen,brain,eyes,heart,major organs
    • deeply invasive
    • 4th most common form of nosocomial infections in US
  14. Oppertunistic fungal diseases
    are serious diseases encountered by perple with reduced immune sustems
  15. 2 Types of skin fungal diseases are
    • ringworm
    • candidasis
  16. 2 types of respiratory fungal diseases are
    • Aspergillosis
    • Histoplasmosis
  17. Ringworm agent
    • Dermastophytes
    • sp. tricopytan, microsporium, epidermopyton
  18. Ringworms produce
    Keratinase used to breakdown proteins found in skin, hair and nails
  19. Dermatophytes (fungus)
    spores can live for more than a year in human skin scales in the environment
  20. ringworm transmission
    • direct
    • indirect (fomites)
    • vectors (domestic animals)
  21. ringworm symptoms
    • itchy
    • unsightly
    • persistant
  22. ringworm diseases
    • tinea corpis- body
    • tinea capitis- scalp
    • tinea barbae- beard
    • tinea cruris- groin/joc itch
    • tinea pedis-toes
    • tinea unguium-fingernals, toenails
  23. ringworm treatment
    • anti-fungal creams and/or antifungal oral medications
    • removal of dead epithelial tissue
    • good hygiene
  24. ringworm prevention
    • good hygiene
    • treat items for spores
    • avoid prore contaminated objects (gyms,lockers,pools)
  25.  Candidiasis agent
    Candida albicans
  26. candidiasis characteristics
    • unicellular
    • budding yeast
    • ubiquitous
    • normal microflora
    • invasive pathogen
    • thrives in damp, warm conditions
    • most common opportunistic fungal infection
  27. candidiasis transmission
  28. forms of candidiasis disease
    superficial-urogenital(vaginitis,yeast infection) , oral(thrush,oropharyngeal), skin, fingernails.
  29. candidiasis (moniliasis) at risk group
    • infants, pple w/ dentures, pregnant wmn, diabetics, long ter use of chemotherapeutics, immunocompromised indeviduals
    • most common cause of diaper rash
  30. candidiasis treatment
    • sometimes drying agents
    • Antifungal drugs (topical,oral, IV, suppositories)
  31. candidiasis prevention
    • prevent/control optimal growth conditions for yeast (moisture, heat,friction)
    • maitenance of hygiene, skin integrity, immune system functioning
  32. Aspergillosis agent
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  33. Aspergillosis characteristics
    • ubiqutous
    • small spores are buoyant( remain airborne)
    • may produce mycotoxins which can cause liver cancer
  34. Aspergillosis transmission
    • indirect (fomites)
    • vehicles (airborne food)
  35. forms of Aspergillosis
    • allergic aspergillosis
    • aspergillomas
    • invasive pulmonary infection
  36. Allergic Aspergillosis
    • common in asthmatics
    • Lungs: weezing, cough,malais,fever etc.
    • Sinuses:facial pressure, headache, blocked nose, yellow or green discharge from the nose and cough
  37. Aspergillomas
    may form in the lungs or other organs
  38. Invasive pulmonary infection
    fever chest pain shortness of breath blood in septum and urine, pneumonia, delarium, menengitis, shock, endocarditis
  39. Aspergillosis treatment
    • allergies: immunosuppressant drugs (predizone, steroids)
    • invasive pulmonary: Antifungal agents (oral or IV.), Surgical removal of aspergillomas or infected ares (endocarditis)
  40. Aspergillosis prevention
    • Masks
    • Mintain hygiene & immine functioning
  41. Aspergillosis concerns
    food poisoning via aflatoxins, contaminated foods ( milk and p. butter)
  42.  Histoplasmosis (valley Fever) agent
    histoplasma capsulatum
  43. histoplasmosis characteristics
    • Ubiquitous to soil (found in poultry, house litter, caves, areas harboring bats, and in birds roosts)
    • Dimorphic fungal shapes ( changes shape, filimentous(naturally); yeast (in humans))
  44. histoplasmosis transmission
    vehicle (airborne inhilation of spores)
  45.  histoplasmosis forms of disease
    • Asymptomatic 90%
    • Invasive infection (pneumonia like)-chills,fever, chest pain when breathing.
    • Chronic invasive infection (Tb like symptoms)- granulomas
    • Dissemination to meninges and internal organs
    • *most common is chronic and dissemination
  46. Histoplasmosis treatment
    • Mild cases are self limiting
    • Antifungal agents (long term needed for some cases)
    • Supportive therapy
  47. histoplasmosis prevention
    • Regulate vectors (bats or birds)- control population numbers, properly manage waste
    • Use protective gear/ mask in high risk areas
Card Set
fungal diseases
unit 3