Final exam Rome

  1. Zosimus
    • Wrote the new history
    • written in greek
    • was a Byzantine historian
    • only pagan source from the period who describes evencts from augustus to the fall of the empire
  2. Theodocian Code
    • Compiled in 438
    • Collected laws by emperors from constantine onward
    • provides understanding of administrative workings to regulators governing social relations
    • describes in detail political events
  3. Libanius
    • Greek sophist and Rhetorcian
    • his letters and orations are a major source of information for the eastern part of the empire
    • attempted to live and write as though christianity didn't exist
    • was a greek intellectual
  4. Confession
    • written by St. augustine
    • An autobiography of a young man growing up in Roman north africa and Italy
    • written in Latin
    • Broke fresh ground as literature
  5. Constantius II
    • Recieved eastern provinces after the death of Constantine
    • Defeated Magentius
    • was a utilitarian
    • endorsed Homoiousios thinking it would be recieved more readily by the Roman Citizenry
  6. Constans
    • Recieved Italy and Northa Africa after Constantine's death
    • defeated constantines II
    • took over all western provinces
    • was defeated by Magentius
  7. Edict of Milan
    • Proclamation that established religious toleration for christians
    • agreed between constantine and licinius
    • assured christians legal rights
    • prompted return of confiscated christians property
  8. Unconquerable Sun
    • Deity that Constantine worshipped before his conversion
    • Constantine erected statue of himself as sun god
    • official sun god of the later Roman empire
    • appeared on Coins of Constantine
  9. Old St. Peters Basilica
    • Located on thee Tiber
    • built over the Circus of Nero
    • Served as papal residence in the middle ages
    • built on the site of St. Peters Grave
  10. Julian
    • Nephew of Constantine I
    • Was a baptized Christian
    • Converted to Paganism by Maximus
    • Attempted to revive and reorganize the pagan cults
  11. Maximus of Ephesus
    • Philosopher
    • pagan priest
    • converted emperor Julian to paganism
    • was executed by Emperor Valens for his complicity in an assassination plot against Valens
  12. Against the Galilaeans
    • An intellectual campaign against Christians
    • was written by Emperor Julian
    • stated christianity was a sect of Judaism
    • ordered the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem
  13. Julian's Edict on Rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem
    • Issued after Julian's anti Christian tract against the Galiliaeans
    • Was a ruins since being destroyed by Titus
    • was terminated by Julian who needed all manpower to mount an invasion of Persia
  14. Flavius Jovianus
    • Proclaimed emperor after Julian was Killed
    • made peace with the persians
    • forbade magical practices and restored gifts to the church
    • died at Dadastana
  15. Valentinian II
    • Son of Valentinian I
    • mother established as regent and ruled Italy and Africa
    • Ruled from vienna
    • Committed suicide after being defied by his regent Abrogast
  16. Theodosius I
    • Fanatical devotee of the Nicene Creed
    • Destroyed pagan temples or converted them to churches
    •  issued 18 laws against paganism
    • ordered massacre of citizens of Thesalonica after emperors general was killed during a riot
  17. Arcadius
    • Eastern Emperor who ruled with Theodosius I
    • was ineffectual
    • ruled by his own ministers
    • his empire was preyed on by the Goths
  18. Paganism
    • Ancient non-Judeo Christian religion
    • was used in a derogatory manner by the christians
    • was annihilated by emperor Theodosius I
    • Were persecuted by the Christians
  19. Mary as the Mother of God
    • Mother of Jesus
    • object of Veneration in the christians church
    • was decided upon her nature at council at ephesus and Chalcedon
    • was a source of discord in the early church
  20. A.D. 395
    • Beginning of the split between the eastern and western halves of the empire
    • was the year Theodosius I died
    • after this date east and west were never ruled by a single emperor
    • were ruled by arcadius and Honorius
  21. Arcadius and Honorius
    • Never became strong leaders
    • were controlled by officials who managed their affairs
    • arcadius rulled the east
    • Honorius ruled the west
  22. Eutropius
    • Eunuch
    • Became most powerful figure in the eastern empire under emperor arcadius
    • Arranged marriage between arcadius and Eudoxia
    • Repelled the invasion of Asia minor by the Huns
  23. Stilicho
    • Regent for emperor Honorius
    • repelled the visigoths and ostrogoths
    • greatest enemy was Rufinius the guardian of Arcadius
    • Married Serene the Niece of Theodosius
  24. Radagaisus
    • Pagan
    • invaded italy with a horde of Germans
    • attacked Florence
    • Executed in 406
  25. Visigoths
    • Separated from the ostrogoths in the 4th Century
    • Germanic Peoples
    • raided Roman territories
    • established kingdoms in Gaul and Spain
  26. Ostrogoths
    • Developed empire north of the Black Sea
    • a germanic people
    • invaded italy
    • was subjugated by the Huns
  27. Alaric
    • Chief of the Visigoths
    • Leader of the arm that sacked Rome
    • Served as commander of the Gothic troops in the Roman army
    • appointed master of soldiers in Illyrium
  28. Vandals
    • Member of a Germanic Kingdom in North Africa
    • Destroyed Roman fleet using Fire ships
    • plundered Rome after the Sack of Rome
    • were arian christians who persecuted Catholics
  29. Gaiseric
    • King of the Vandals
    • conquered a large part of Roman Africa
    • sacked Rome in 455
    • Defeated 2 Efforts by Romans to Overthrow him
  30. Valentinian III
    • Son of Constantius III
    • Failed to stop the attack of the vandals
    • murdered by Petaireas of Aetius
  31. Attila
    • King of the Huns
    • One of the Greatest barbarian Rulers who attacked Rome
    • Marched on Gaul in 451
    • murdered his brother
  32. Romulus Augustulus
    • Last of Western Emperors
    • was demanded to surrender 1/3 of Italy by Germans
    • was deposed by the Germans
    • sent to live with Relatives in Campania
  33. Odoacer
    • First Barbarian King of Italy
    • German Warrior
    • Wanted to keep administration of Italy in his hands while recognizing overlordship of eastern emperor Zeno
    • Was murdered by Theodoric
  34. Theodosius II
    • Easily dominated man who allowed his govt to be run by a succession of Ministers
    • son of arcadius
    • foundeded university of Constantinople
  35. Leo II
    • Roman emperor of the East
    • Son of Zeno
    • Made Augustus at age 5
    • died shortly after becoming emperor
  36. St. Anthony of Egypt
    • Religious hermit and early monk
    • attempted to codify guidelines for monastic rule
    • lived in the desert wasteland
    • was commemorated by the Life of Anthony by Athanasius
  37. AD 476
    • year in which Rome fell
    • was continued in the east long after this date
    • continued through Byzantines Roman imperial succession
    • Rome is now new Rome
  38. Alamanni
    • Confederation of Germanic speaking groups
    • occupied land opposite the upper Rhine
    • ruled simultaneously with several kings
    • passed on power by hereditary succession
  39. Alans
    • name for groups of nomads occupying land north of the black sea and east of the River Don
    • one group participated in the Rhine crossing of 406
    • another group composed the vandal-alan confederation that seized carthage
  40. Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Roman Historian
    • Source for the workings of the Roman Empire
    • Covered the period of 354-378
    • wrote about the Hunnic Crisis
  41. Ausorius
    • Teacher of Rhetoric at University of Bordeaux
    • tutored emperor Gratian
    • Wrote Mosella
    • Corresponded with Symmachus
  42. Celti, Celts
    • Name for groups speaking related language who dominated northern italy and Gaul
    • many were incorporated into the Roman Empire
    • important because they had developed economies that allowed rome to prosper
  43. Clovis
    • King of the Salian Franks
    • Created Frankish kingdom in the aftermath of Roman Collapse
    • kingdom extended to all of France except the mediterannean coast
    • was created by victories over remnants of the Roman army of  the Rhine
  44. Edeco
    • Leading henchman of Attila
    • Became king of the Sciri after Attila's death
    • was killed when the Ostrogoths destroyed Scirian Independence
    • the eastern Romans had attempted to get him to assassinate attila
  45. Franks
    • Germanic speaking group
    • occupied land opposite the lower Rhine frontier region of the Roman empire
    • date from the first century
    • achieved political unity after the fall of the Empire
  46. Goths
    • Germanic speaking people
    • migrated to the black sea region
    • were destroyed by the Hunnic power at the end of the 4th century
    • were the precursor to the visigoths and ostrogoths
  47. Gregory Bishop of Tours
    • Sixth century historian
    • chronicled the frankish kingdom
    • work contains unique info about the reign of Clovis
    • also preserved lost works which chronicled the era of Aetius
  48. Hasding Vandals
    • One of the two vandal groups who to escape Hunnic takeover forced themselves over the Rhine
    • created a coalition comprising survivors of the Siling Vandals and Alans conquered by Visigothic-Roman forces in Spain
    • Inhabited territories north of the Carpathian mountains before the Hunnic Crisis
  49. Huns
    • Nomadic Steppe Group
    • began to become powerful in the Black sea region
    • Built empire on the Great Hungarian Plain
    • after the death of Attila their power was extinguished within 20 years
  50. Lombards
    • Germanic speacking group
    • located in the Middle Elbe Region
    • acknowledged the power of Attila
    • didn't form core of the Hun's conquered regions
  51. Orestes
    • Employed by Attila the hun as an ambassador to Constantinople
    • originally a pannonian landowner
    • organized an oppresion which led to Nepos to retreat to Dalmatia
    • was executed by Odovacar
  52. Quadi
    • Germanic speaking tribe
    • occupying land on the north-western fringes of the Hungarian plain
    • contributed manpower to the Suevi
    • Crossed the Rhine with the vandals  and Alans
  53. Ricimer
    • Roman general
    • of barbarian ancestry
    • grandson of visigothic king Vallia
    • attempted to reconquer north africa with Anthemius
  54. Sarmatians
    • Iranian speaking, nomadic group
    • Some groups stayed east of the Carpathians
    • others moved to the west of it to the great hungarian plain
    • were conquered by the Huns
  55. Siling Vandals
    • one of the two vandal groups who forced their way over the rhine
    • before the hunic crisis the inhabitied territories north of the carpathian mountains
    • suffered in the Romano visigothic campaigns
    • united with the Hasding Dynasty
  56. Suevi
    • Term for the germanic speaking groups of the north west corner of the Great Hungarian Plain
    • Roman clients
    • some paticipated in the crossing of the Rhine
    • were conquered by the huns
  57. Tervingi
    • Gothic group that settled closest to Romes lower Danube frontier in Moldavia and wallachia
    • Confederation of kings ruled by a judge whose power passed by hereditary right
    • sought to alleviate the terms the empire imposed upon them
    • eventually became part of the Visigoths
  58. Valamer
    • Ostrogothic leader
    • began the process which generated the ostrogoths
    • united a series of gothic warbands who had been incorporated into Attila's Hunnic Empire
    • Killed in the Middle Danubian Wars
  59. Wiebark Culture
    • Zone of Remains
    • Extended over much of Northern Poland in the first and Second centuries
    • Spreaded east and south in the third and fourth centuries
  60. Legatus Augusti Pro praetore
    • Commander in Chief of all armed forces in a single province
    • senator who had reached the consulship with experience of civil administration posts and army commands in the different parts of the empire
    • responsible for civil government and defense of the province
    • commanded up to 4 legions and several auxiliary units
  61. Tribunus laticlavius
    • Second in Command of a legion
    • young man of the senatorial class but not yet a senator
    • posted to different provinces performing civil administration
    • served as legionary legate
  62. Legatus Legionis
    • Commander of a legion
    • senator who served as a military tribune and had experience of civil posts
    • were appointed emperor and served for 3 years
    • commanded 5-6000 men
  63. Tribunus Augusticlavius
    • Equestrian officer with previous military experience
    • duties comprised of Staff work
    • could take command of detachments of legionaries
    • conveyed groups of men to selected destinations
  64. Praefectus Castrorum
    • Camp Prefect
    • Third in command of a legion
    • was from the equestrian order and was an experienced officer
    • some went on to posts in the praetorian guard
  65. Praefectus Cohortis
    • most junior of the Equestrian orders
    • commanded 500 auxiliary infantry
    • served 2-3 years in this post
    • went on to serve as one of 5 tribuni augusticlavii in a legion
  66. Praefectus Alae
    • high magistrate
    • executed judicial powers as delegates of the emperor
    • organized tax levies
    • supervised provincial governors
  67. Beneficiarius
    • legionaries with long experience
    • served on the staff of the provincial governor
    • stationed at important places on the frontiers
    • were responsible for intelligence gathering
  68. Clibanarii
    • Heavy armored Cavalry
    • derived from Clibanus meaning oven
    • is not sure whether they fought or not
    • is not sure if they differed from the Catapharactarii
  69. Gladius
    • Short Thrusting Sword
    • originated in Spain
    • was used by the roman army from the third century bc to third century Ad
  70. Legion
    • originally meant the choosing or the levy
    • applied to the main unit of the Roman Army
    • Composed 5,000 strong
    • was an infantry unit containing some cavalry
  71. Praetor
    • Originally were the chief magistrates in the early Republican Rome
    • were superceeded by the consuls
    • when the consuls were absent they were in charge of the courts
    • had the right to command armies
  72. Quaestor
    • originally the lowest ranking magistrates of the republic appointed to assist the consuls in financial matters
    • held by young men at the start of their career before they entered the senate
    • were created to deal with provincial administration
    • acted as deputies to consular governors and held commands in the army
  73. Singulares
    • bodyguards of Roman Officers
    • formed the guards of provincial governors
    • formed the bodyguards of the emperor
    • were chosen from units all over the empire
  74. Triumph
    • Granted by the senate to victorious generals
    • rode in a chariot with his face painted red
    • approached the temple on his knees to dedicate the spoils
    • Augustus limited its members to the imperial family
  75. feriae
    • ancient roman festival days
    • all business was suspended including lawsuits
    • were 2 types public and private
    • were held annually by a fixed date
  76. Lar Familiaris
    • any of numerous tutelary deities
    • concieved at the center of the family and family cult
    • a prayer was said to it every morning
    • special offerings were made a family festivals
  77. Levana
    • Ancient Roman goddess
    • involved in rituals pertaining to child birth
    • stated that it was invoked when the father lifted the child to acknowledge it as his own
    • Augustine stated it was invoked when the child is lifted from the earth
  78. Paterfamilias
    • father of the family
    • held legal privelege over the property of the family
    • had the duty to raise healthy children to be future citizens of rome
    • held power of life and death over every member of his extended family
  79. Ingdigitamenta
    • lists of deities kept by the college of pontiffs
    • were used to ensure that the correct names were used when invoking deities during public ceremonies
    • described the nature of deities who might be called upon in particular circumstances
    • were attributed to Numa Pompilius
  80. Caristia
    • privately observed holiday that celebrated the love of family with banqueting and gifts
    • it was a day of reconcilliation
    • was a recognition of the family line as it continued into the present among the living
    • pagan ritual
  81. Matralia
    • celebrated on june 11
    • temple was the Forum boarium
    • only for single women or women in their first marriage
    • offered prayers for their nieces and nephews
  82. Flamen
    • fifteen members of a college with priestly duties
    • guarded the sybelline books
    • consulted and interpreted scripture at the request of the senate
    • oversaw the worship of foriegn gods that they introduced to Rome
  83. Quirinalia
    • a Sabine god of War
    • identified with the festival of the mad
    • was also the god of the Curiae
    • was celebrated in  mid February
  84. Cerialia
    • Roman Goddess
    • when celebrated honored with chariot races in the Circus maximus
    • this goddess made cereal crops germinate and grow
    • a lazy sow was sacrificed to her
  85. mithras
    • Iranian God of Light
    • the liturgy of the cult took place in a subterranean vault
    • the priestly hierarchy included 7 stages of initiation
    • met every sunday at dusk
  86. Aesculapius
    • the God of health
    • comforter of the sick
    • had temples of healing to the sick
    • in his temples "sacred" snakes slithered freely
  87. Cybele
    • The mother of all the Gods
    • was celebrated by the giving of a banquet
    • cult originated in anatolia
    • her anatolian priests were castrated
  88. Attis
    • a god who died and came to life each year
    • it was the first roman deity who did this
    • priests were eunuchs
    • was the consort of Cybele
Card Set
Final exam Rome
Final exam Rome