Systems 4.txt

  1. ´╗┐dysarthia
    slurred speech
  2. aphasia
    can't produce/comprehend language
  3. apraxia
    inability to carry out learned motor tasks
  4. What are the categories tested in a neurological exam?
    • mental status: memory, consciousness, orientation, attention, language
    • cranial nerves
    • motor: bulk, tone(rigidity, spasticity, cogwheeling, paratonia), power
    • sensory
    • reflexes
    • coordination
    • gait
  5. How do you differentiate between bells palsy and stroke?
    • bells is ENTIRE VII
    • stroke is usually localized
  6. Which side does the uvula and tongue deviate when there is nerve damage?
    • uvula: away
    • tongue: toward
  7. What types of pain are conveyed by the Anterolateral system? Where does it decussate?
    • pinprick and temperature
    • decuss at spinal cord
  8. What is the romberg test?
    gait test: stand w feet together & eyes closed, if sway or fall sign of DCML dysfunction
  9. What are symptoms of cortex damage?
    • aphasia: produce/comprehend language
    • apraxia: learned motor task
    • hemianopia/visual field
    • neglect: inattention to one side
  10. What are symptoms of sub-cortex damage?
    • sub-cortex: basal ganglia, internal capsule, thalamus
    • purely motor, sensory or tremor
  11. What are symptoms of brainstem damage?
    cranial nerve deficits or crossed/contralateral signs
  12. What is brown sequard syndrome?
    • spinal cord injury
    • ipsilateral: loss of motor, vibration, fine touch
    • contralateral: loss of pinprick and temperature
  13. How does plexus/peripheral nerve damage pan out?
  14. What is myasthenia gravis?
    • ptosis: eyelid weakness
    • fatiguable eye movement, repiratory, swallowing/speaking difficulty
  15. What are the meningeal red flag tests?
    • Kernig's sign: painful resisting hamstring test
    • Brudzinski's sign: flexion of neck leads to flexion of hips or knees
  16. What is vertical nystagmus?
    vertically bouncing eye movement, not normal
  17. What is pulsatile tinnitus?
    swooshing sound w pulse
  18. What are the features of alzheimers?
    • Slowly evolving dementia
    • A4-Beta: plaques & amyloid angiopathey
    • plaques: brown circles around vessels
    • neurofibriallary tangles: phosphorylated tau protein correlated with DZ
    • congophilic/cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    • granulovacuolar degeneration of simchowicz
    • death from pneumonia/sepsis
  19. What are the features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
    • affect motor neurons->muscle related symtoms
    • SOD1: antioxidant functions in familial forms
    • TDP43: sporadic
    • Elevated glutamate (NT toxicity) may mediate
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Systems 4.txt
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