1. Confinement
    The process of controlling the flow of a HAZMAT spill and capturing it at some specific location.
  2. Containment
    The act of stopping the further release of a materal from it's container.
  3. Defensive Control Measures
    Those measures used to contain and/or confine a material.
  4. Absorption
    Absorption is a physical and/or chemical event occurring during contact between materials that have an attraction for each other.
  5. Smothering
    Prevents air and flammable vapors from combining.
  6. Separating
    Intervenes between the fuel and the fire.
  7. Cooling
    Lowers the temp of the fuel and adjacent surfaces.
  8. Suppressing
    Prevents the release of vapors.
  9. Fluroprotein Foams
    Are designed only for hydrocarbon fires and can be stored at temperatures from 20 to 120 degrees.
  10. Protein Foams
    Designed for use only on hydrocarbon fires and can be stored at temperatures from 20 120 degrees.
  11. Expansion Ratio
    The volume of finished foam that results from a unit volume of foam solution.
  12. Drainage Time
    The time it takes 1/4 of the total liquid to drain from the foam.
  13. Vapor Suppression
    Is the action taken to reduce the emmision of vapors at a HAZMAT spill.
  14. Vapor Dispersion
    Is the action taken to direct or influence the course of airborne hazardous materials.
  15. Dilution
    The application of water to a water soluble material to reduce it's hazard. However, dilution of liquid materials has few practical applications at a hazmat incident.
  16. Defensive Control Measures
    Those measures used to contain and/or confine a material.
  17. Flammable (Explosive) Range
    Is the percentage of gas or vapor concentration in the air that will burn if ignited.
  18. Specific Gravity
    The weight of a substance compared to an equal volume of H20 at a given temperature.
  19. Vapor Density
    Compares the density of gas to the density of air.
  20. Hypergolic Materials
    Materials that ignite when they contact each other.
  21. Pyrophoric Materials
    Elements that react and ignite on contact with air.
  22. Flammable Gas
    Any material that is a gas at 68 degrees or less at normal atmospheric pressure.
  23. Poisonous Gas
    Any gas poisonous by inhalation, and is a gas at 68 degrees or less, and has a boiling point of 68 degrees or less at normal atmospheric pressure, and that is toxic to humans.
  24. Dangerous When Wet
    Material that, by contact with water, may become spontaneously flammable or can give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate of 1 liter per KG of material per hour.
  25. Radioactive Material
    Any material having the specific gravity greater than 0.002 microcuries per gram.
  26. Cryogenic liquid Tank Railcar
    This type of railcar is a large, nonpressure tank that is heavily insulated with a vacuum pulled on the space between the inner and outer shells. This tank may have the capacity of 15,000 or 30,000 gallons.
  27. What is the role of a First Responder
    The First Responder is not expected to know how to operate monitoring instruments and interpret readings. However, the First Responder must know where to obtain this equipment and how to contact the technicians who are required to operate it.
  28. Primary Objective
    Is the operational goal of the incident.
  29. Acute
    a single occurrence.
  30. Chronic
    A long-term occurrence.
  31. Liquefied Gas
    Is a gas that at the charging pressure it is partially liquid at 70 degrees.
  32. Cryogen
    A gas that turns into a liquid at or below -130 degrees.
  33. Asphyxiants
    Asphyxiants...effect oxygenation of the body and generally lead to suffocation.
  34. Simple Asphyxiants
    Simple Asphyxiants generally insert gasses that displace 02. These are Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, etc
  35. Chemical Asphixants
    Chemical Asphixants prohibit the body from using 02.
  36. Mutagens
    Mutagens cause changes in the genetic system.
  37. Teratogens
    Teratogens cause congenital malformations
  38. Inhalation
    Inhalation is the process of taking in materials by breathing through the nose or mouth.
  39. Ingestion
    Ingestion is taking in materials through the mouth by means other than inhalation.
  40. Injection
    Injection is taking in materials through a puncture or stick with a needle.
  41. Absorption
    Absorption is taking in materials through the skin or eyes.
  42. Flash point
    The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface.
  43. Autoignition Temperature
    The minimum temperature to which the fuel in the air must be heated to initate self-sustained combustion.
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