A type of lipid that is prevalent in animals but occurs very little in plants is ___ .
When correctly matching three different structures to their names (cholesterol vs. estradiol vs. testosterone), the structure with a carbonyl group is
Dolichol, ubiquinone (coenzyme Q), and retinal are three lipids derived from isoprene. The lipid involved in the electron transport chain is ___
Farnese and squalene are isoprene derivatives containing ___farmesene or ___squalene isoprene units respectively.
3 (farnesene) ; 6 (squalene)
We have seen examples where fatty acids are covalently linked to all of the following EXCEPT ___ .
Glucose permease ___ the equilibrium ratio I/O for glucose located on the inside (I) vs. outside (O) of cells.
does not affect
Glycophorin is a transmembrane protein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Carbohydrates are attached to it at residues located ___ .
on the extracellular surface
Which of the lipids below is NOT derived from isoprene?
Which of the two membranes below has the greater variety of different proteins?
mitochondrial inner plasma membrane
Sites of O-linked sugars in glycoproteins include ___
ser and thr
A protein which is loosely attached to the outside of a membrane is called a(an)
peripheral membrane protein
The dominant type of secondary structures in porin and bacteriorhodopsin are ___ and ___ respectively.
sheet (porin) ; helices (bacteriorhodopsin)
Which of the types of human cells listed below contains only the outer plasma membrane and no nuclear membrane or other organelle membrane?
mature red blood cell (erythrocyte)
In the visual cycle, light causes
cis-retinal to isomerize to trans-retinal
A dietary precursor for vitamin A is ___ .
Which of the following is an anabolism pathway?
ATP is kinetically ___ . ATP is thermodynamically ___ .
stable ; unstable
Beta-oxidation is the name given to the pathway which ___ fatty acids.
In the glycolysis pathway, there are examples of carbon chains that are ___ carbons long.
6 or 3
The Catabolism process which begins with NADH as the starting material is...
Citric acid has ___ carboxyl groups.
During aerobic catabolism of glucose, most of the CO2 production occurs during
the Krebs cycle
A reaction which releases ___ is highly favorable.
CO2 or PPi
Palmitate (16 carbon fatty acid) is broken down into 8 acetyl units (8 acetyl @ 2C = 16 carbons). Glucose (6 carbons) is broken down into ___ acetyl units.
The H+ gradient produced by the electron transport chain is characterized by low [H+] in the ___ .
Movement of protons into the inside (matrix) of the mitochondrion is called...
gradient-driven ATP synthesis
Which of the following is NOT a high energy form?
The more stable form of pyruvic acid is the ___ form.
NADH converts to NAD+ during...
The pathway creating a transmembrane proton gradient is ___ .
Catabolism process which begins with acetyl-CoA as the starting material....
Fatty acids and carbohydrates both are converted into a common fuel for subsequent processing by a single set of enzymes. This common fuel is
Metabolism pathway which for the most part is a repeated cycle of reactions
NADH and FADH2 store ___ energy compared with ATP and Ac-CoA.
Thermogenin is located in the ___ .
mitochondrial inner membrane
A thioester is a high energy compound because there is ___ of the S and C atoms of the thioester group.
little overlap between the p orbitals
In glycolysis, two ATP are spent during the preparatory phase. The payoff phase produces ___ total ATP, for a net gain of ___ ATP.
4 (total) ; 2 (net)
The enzyme which catalyzes the following reaction is named for the forward direction. G3P + (NAD+) + Pi -> 2,3-BPG + NADH . It is a ___ .
ADP is a reaction product in the glycolysis ___ phase.
A dehydratase is an enzyme which removes ___ from the substrate.
DHAP and G3P are phosphorylated 3-carbon ketose and aldose forms respectively. During conversion of glucose into pyruvate, step 5 is DHAP-> G3P. The enzyme which catalyzes this step is named
triose phosphate isomerase
Conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate is ___ .
oxidation of GAP
One purpose of phosphorylating Glc at the very beginning of glycolysis is to make Glc into a product which is ___ .
less able to diffuse across the cell's outer membrane
Glycolysis occurs in the
Glycolysis intermediates with two phosphates have ___ in their abbreviation.
When an entire functional group moves from one position to another, such as 3-phosphoglycerate -> 2-phosphoglycerate, the enzyme type is a (an) ___ .
In the list of three compounds below, the compound which is not an isomer of the other two is
The 10th step in glycolysis is PEP + ADP -> pyr + ATP. It is a kinase reaction in the ____ direction. The enzyme catalyzing the reaction is ___ kinase.
reverse ; pyruvate (pyr)
For the reactions below, in the direction written, a kinase catalyzes ___
(X-Phos -> X + Pi
X + Pi -> X-Phos
X + ATP -> X-Phos + ADP
X + Y -> X-Y (bonded together)
X + Y + ATP -> X-Y + ADP + Pi)
X + ATP -> X-Phos + ADP
During glycolysis (running in the forward direction glucose -> pyruvate), a compound which is both synthesized and consumed is ___ .
The conversion of one molecule of Glc into two molecules of Pyr by glycolysis results in a net formation of
2 NADH and 2 ATP
Glucose and pyruvate, the beginning and end of glycolysis, lack phosphates. True or false : All of the intermediate structures between glucose and pyruvate have at least 1 phosphate group.
The primary "purpose" of phosphorylating F6P to make 1,6FBP is to make FBP into a product which is
The final step in glycolysis includes tautomerization. This favorable isomerization converts the pyruvate form from ___ . The released energy is stored up in ___ .
enol -> keto ; ATP
In step 4 where glucose is divided into two 3-carbon fragments, those fragments are....
The phase of glycolysis given by the reaction (hexose + 2 ATP -> 2 triose-phosphate + 2 ADP) is called the ___ phase.
many lipids are constructed by polymerizing ____ as a first step.
each isoprene unit contributes _____ carbons to the polymer.
Isoprene and its polymer-like derivatives is characterized by the presence of...
double bonds in the backbone and the presence of methyl groups extending from the backbone chain
derivatives (8) of isoprene include...
three isoprene units combine to give...
the farnesyl chain containing 15 carbons
Two farnese units combine to give the ...
squalene chain containing 30 carbons
the squalene chain may be converted to a molecule containing four...
the squalene chain may be converted to a molecule that is the root structure found in....
steroid hormones, cholesterol and bile salts
examples of steroid hormones include the male and female hormones.....
testosterone and estradiol
homrmone groups that end in "-ol" have what functional groups
2 OH groups (diol)
hormone groups that end in "one" have what functional groups?
a ketone group
The enzyme responsible for turning testosterone into estradiol in women is called...
the 15 carbon chain farnesyl chain may be covalently attached to _______ to provide a nonpolar tail on the outside surface of a protein.
the beta carotene molecule is made from ___ isoprene units
beta carotene is made up of ___ carbons
vitamin A is also called...
In cells, vitamin A is oxidized to....
retinol is the ____ form of vitamin A
retinal is the ____ form of vitamin A
retinal combines with the protein opsin to make ....
the light absorbing complex in vision is...
dolichol is a lipid found in...
the membrane of the ER
what is the role of dolichol in glycoprotein synthesis?
to act as an anchor and flipflop the oligosaccharide
ubiquinone is a lipid found in...
the inner mitochondrial membrane
ubiquinone's two forms are often abbreviated as...
Q and QH2 or as UQ and UQH2
the role of coenzyme Q in electron transport....
transfer electrons between membranes
the lipid bilayer exists in a ____ state.
inetgral membranes proteins ______ the membrane
periphela membrane proteins ______ the membrane
lay on/have weak interactions with
integral membrane proteins are called...
in cases where short oligosaccharides are attached to membrane lipids or membrane proteins in the cell's plasma membrane, those carbohydrates are facing...
the outside of the cell.
the composition of lipids fround in membranes varies according to...
the type of membrane
glycosylated lipids are only found...
on the outside of cells
glycolipids are only present in _____ cells
mature red blood (erythrocytes)
besides the rbc glycoplipds are also found,,...
in the myelin sheath surrounding nerve cell axons
cholesterol is synthesized by ______ and represents ____% of the plasma membrane of human erythrocytes
cardiolipin is found in....
the mitochondrial inner membrane is the site of....
electron transport and ATP sythesis
the surface of peripheal proteins are predominantly....
the surface of an intergral membrane protein is...
usually a ____ is required to purify an intergral membrane protein
glycophorin is a _______ protein
glycophorin only incudes one polar group, a
OH group on a theronine (thr)
carbohydrates are attached to the amino-terminal ____ numbered segment on the outside of the cell
the ser, thr and asn residues exposed on the inside of the cell do not have........
glycophorin is isolated from the outer membrane of the...
mature red blood cell
it is easy to purify the mature red blood cell because...
it contains no other cellular membranes
cytochrome b5 is a heme-containing protein that is ____ residues long
the nonpolar segment of cytochrome b5 functions as...
a hydrophobic anchor which buries itself in lipid membrane bilayers
bacteriorhodopsin is a _______ protein
a protein found in some photosynthetic bacteria is...
bacteriorhodopsin appears to form seven _________.
porins are _____ proteins
porin exterior includes, ______ and the interior includes_______.
an antiparallel beta barrel
water filled channel
glucose permease helps ____ pass through membranes by _________
glucose permease acts as an _____ for transport
the breakdown of large food molecules into small pieces such as CO2 and water, storing up energy in the form of "high-energy" compounds such as ATP and NADH
Anabolism involves the.....
consumption of ATP as a source of energy for the synthesis of large macromolecules from small precursor building blocks
pyruvate contains ___ carbons and is half the size of ______.
The first phase of the breakdown of glucose is called...
glycolysis consists of...
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
each of the major metabolic intermediates contains an....
adenosine handle for enxymes to hold onto.
just coenzyme A - CoA
NADH and FADH2 are _______ carriers
Overall major pathway
C6H12O6 -> 6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP
after glycolysis in the pathway, the next step involves...
the pyruvic acid molecule (pyruvate) undergoes a dehyrdogentaion and decarboxylation (loss of Co2)
the pyruvic acid molecule (pyruvate) undergoes a dehyrdogentaion and decarboxylation (loss of Co2) in a series of reaction catalyzed by a ......
the oligomer that catalyzes the breakdown of pyruvate is called....
The PDH multi-enzyme
Pyruvate loses a _________ in the form of ______, becoming an acetyl group which is then attached to coenzyme A (CoA)
In the third section of the pathway, acetyl-CoA is processed by ______________.
the krebs cycle
Two other names for the krebs cycle are...
tricarboxylic Acid or citric acid
the basic function of the krebs cycle is...
to convert the two carbon acetyl group into two molecules of CO2,
the basic function of the krebs cycle is to convert the two carbon acetyl group into two molecules of CO2,storing up energy in the form of ______
NADH and FADH2
In the 4th section of the map the NADH and FADH2 interact with...
proteins embedded into the mitochondiral inner membrane
the process of electron transport involves
electrons being removed from NADH and FADH2 are transported thru a series of moleclues, eventually joining up with gaseous oxygen to make water.
a side effect of electron transport is...
protons are pumped out of the interior (matrix) of the mitochondrion and across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion into the space between the two membranes of the organelle, establishing a gradient in H+ concentration across the inner membrane.
what happens in the final fifth step of the pathway?
the proton gradient is dissipated. Protons re-enter the inside of the mitochondrion, (releases energy which is used to synthesize ATP)
Glycogen and starch are processed by route # ___ which link up with glycolysis.
glucose can undergo what type of catabolism?
aerobic or anaerobic
the branch point for the aerobic vs. anerobic decision occurs at ......
In aerobic catabolism for glucose (O2 present) molecules will travel from...
pyruvate to acetyl-CoA for entry into krebs cycle (route #2)
in anaerobic catabolism for glucose (O2 absent) moleclues will travel from ...
pyruvate to lactate (route #7)
in yeast cells, anerobic catabolism procduces.....
ethanol and CO2 instead of lactate
glycolysis is common in _______ and _________ metabolism
aerobic and anaerobic
________ is the most fundamental metabolic roadway
the two versions of anaerobic processing of pyruvate are...
lactate fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
aerobic catabolism of 1 molecule of glucose produces....
anaerobic catabolism of glucose produces only _____
an example of an anabolic pathway is...
in gluconeogenesis, 2 pyruvates are converted into ...
metabolism of fatty acids links up with the carbohydrate roads at...
The breakdown of fatty acids (route #6) is called...
fragments of amino acids and nucleic acids generally link up with intermediates which are part of ....
the krebs cycle
in humans, the urea cycle (route #9) manufactures .....
waste product for execretion in urine
most fatty acids contain an ______ number of carbon atoms
Beta oxidation involves...
a carboxyl group of the fatty acid is linked to the sulfur of coenzyme A in a condensation reaction, then a carbonyl group is grown at the carbon position two atoms away from the original carboxylic acid group. next, the two carbons at the end are cut off to make acetyl-CoA
beta oxidation anaolgy ?
meat and cheese slicer
C-C-C-C-C-C-C -> _________, not 3 C-C
glucose catabolism produces....
each pyruvate can only produce...
1 acetyl Coa
each glucose indirectly produces ___ acetyl-CoA
pyruvate is the sum of the three species....
acetyl, hydride and CO2
The CoA molecule is the sum of ...
H+ and the negatively charged deprotonated S- form CoA
The dissection of HS-CoA into H+ and -SCoA is useful because it generates....
the H+ that is needed to balance the overall reaction.
One molecule of pyruvate, one of NAD+ and one coenzyme A produce....
acetyl-CoA, NADH, CO2 and an H+
the reaction of the krebs cycle begins by...
joining the 2-carbon acetyl group of acetyl-CoA to the 4 carbon skeleton of oxaloacetate, producing 6-carbon citrate (citric acid)
citric acid has ___ carboxyl groups
____ CO2 molecules are produced during the krebs cycle.
the krebs cycle ultimately converts the 6-carbon skeleton of citrate back into the 4-carbon skeleton of......
each pyruvate produced during glycolysis ultimately is converted into three _____ molecules. (one during the PDH reaction series and two during the krebs cycle)
most of the CO2 in glycolysis is produced during....
the krebs cycle
additional products of the krebs cycle include...
3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 GTP
The GTP in the krebs cycle eventually loses its third phosphate to synthesize...
ATP by the reaction (GTP + ADP --> ADP + ATP)
the central hub in amino acid metabolism is...
the krebs cycle
most of the enzymes of the krebs cycle are dissolved in the
aqueous solution in the matrix.
NADH is produced in the matrix by the...
krebs cycle enzymes
NADH binds to _____ in the inner mitochondiral membrane to tranfer electron to it.
protein complex I
The electrons in the protein complex I get transported to complex ___ then to complex ___ and finally to H+ to make ____.
FAD and its reduced from FADH2 is part of ______ of the electron transport chain.
the 4 high-energy compunds are...
each of the high energy componds contain...
an adenosine component
a reaction which converts the higher energy structure to the lower energy stucture has a ____ delta G, a large release of free energy.
ATP and acetyl-CoA are eters which undergo favorable _______ reactions
NADH and FADH2 are two molecules which release close to ____kcal/mole of energy when they are oxidized by oxygen.
NADH provides _______ energy than FADH2
The mitochondrion produces approximately 3 ATP per _______ and 2 ATP per _______.
What are the two factors that make ATP hydrolysis favorable?
the decrease in repulsion between the three negatively charged phosphate groups.
increased resonance stabilization
increased solvation is ________ (favorable/unfavorable)
ATP is a high energy compound and a _____ compound
ATP is regulated, in order to create ADP and pi, enzymes are needed to...
lower the transition state barrier to a point where the thermodynamically "favorable" reactions can happen on a biological timescale.
NAD+ or NADH is aromatic?
NAD+ and benzene have true ______ geometries
aromatic compounds like benzene and NAD+ are considered to be stable because....
they are able to spread their electron density over a large space instead of concetratin repelling electrons in specific ionized C=C bonds.
to notice that NADH is not aromatic is to realize its
Acetyl-CoA is a _______.
acetyl-CoA can be hydrolyzed by addition of water to produce...
a carboxylic acid and a thiol (molecule ending in "SH")
an oxygen ester is not considerd to be a _____compound, but a thioester is a _______ compound
an increase in electron delocalization causes a favorable ......
in the oxidation of methane you go from ....
nonpolar bonds to polar bonds
polar product of methane oxidation are more ______
conversion of nonpolar bonds to polar bonds releases.....
the keto form is more _______ than the corresponding enol form
thermogenin (smokey the bear) causes a favorable loss of
pyrophosphate (PPi) is the name given to..
two inorganic phophates linked to each other.
what cleaves pyrophosphate to two phosphates?
the cleavage of pyrophosphate and the release of CO2 are _______________ reactions
the conversion of 1 molecule of glucose iinto 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
glycolysis takes place in....
all living organisms
the first group of glycolysis is called the...
in the prepatory phase, one 6-carbon chain (glucose) is converted into..
two identical copies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a 3 carbon chain
the prepatory phase is characterized by the consumption of _________.
2 ATP molecules
the second group in glycolysis is the ________.
in the payoff phase, two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules are converted into....
two molecule of pyruvate.
along the glycolysis pathway ____ NADH and ____ ATP are produced.
glycolysis gives a net payoff of... ___NADH and ___ ATP
P stands for..
BP stands for
biphosphates (two phosphates)
BPG stands for
the aldehyde of glycerol with a phosphate on carbon 3
carboxlyci acid of glycerol with a phosphate on carbon 3
phosphorylated glyceric acid comes in two forms called....
2PG and 3PG
some relatives of DHAP and GAP are...
acetone, glycerol and glyceraldehyde
glyceric acid may also be called...
glycerate has one or more _____ groups attached to it in the glycolysis pathway intermediates.
the numberinf of glyceraldehyde or glyceric acid derivatives uses the aldehyde carbon or carboxylic acid carbon as...
there are ____ kinases in glycolysis.
A kinase is..
an enzyme that removes the third phosphate from a nucleoside triphosphate (ATP or GTP) and attaches it to the organic metabolite
the organic metabolite is the...
Step 7 of glycolysis runs ______ in glycolysis and runs ______ in glucneogensis
step 10 of glycolysis runs _____ biologically but is named for the _______ direction
If a cells needs to break down glucose it can run step 7 in the ______ direction
if a cell needs to make glucose, it can run step 7 in the _________ direction
an isomrase is...
an enzyme that rearranges the positions of atoms within a molecule
a mutase is..
a subclass of isomerases, enzymes that move one entire functional group from one location to another within the same molecule
TIM functions by _______ catalysis.
because delta g is close to zero, the rearrangement reactions are easily run...
in both forard and reverse directions.
steps 2, 5 and 8 are used for
both glycolysis and gluconeogensis
step 4 of glycolysis is a....
reverse aldol condensation reaction
step 6 of glycolysis does two jobs, which are...
removes a hydrogen from GAP and also phosphrylates the product
substrate level phosphorylation is...
when the phosphate is taken out of the solution and not ATP
the enzyme catalyzing step 9 was historically named...
the forward reaction of step 9 is a _______ reaction
the product of the forward reaction of step 9 is...
a phophorylated enol
a better name for phosphoenol-pyruvate is...
nature first converst DHAP to...
#C species common point is...
glucose can cross the membrane much faster with the help on a transport protein called....
pyruvate has an ionized carboxyl group which prevents its...
diffusion acorss membranes.
pyruvate must be carried across membranes by a specific transporter protein from...
the cytosol to the inside of the mitochondrion
pyruvate must be carried across membranes by a specific transporter protein from the cytosol to the inside of the mitochondrion for...
further processing by PDH and the citric acid cycle.
step 3 of glycolysis spends...
a second ATP
step 3 (spending the second ATP) is a way of making F6P.....
_____ ATPs are made in the Payoff phase
after NADH and FADH2 are processed by oxidative phosphorylation there are a total of ___ ATPs produced
each NADH produced by electron transport produces ___ ATP molecules
2 ATPs and 2 NADH produced during glycolysis ultimately represent ___ ATPs of stored energy.
the ATPs produced in anaerobic metabolism represent only about ___% of what you could get if oxygen were being consumed.
delta G actual =
delta G nult + R T ln (Products/reactants)
in the cell, three of ten steps of glycolysis are strongly favorable (negative values of ____ or more), and the others are close to delta G= ___.
steps 1, 3 and 10 in glycolysis are strongly....
the three strongly downhill reactions of glycolysis are not employed in gluconeogensis since they would be....
strongly disfavored (reverse=uphill )
the other seven reactions that are not strongly downhill are basically ____ and can run in both directions.
the three strongly downhill reactions of glycolysis are sites of...
The regulated steps of glycolysis have a delta-G-actual value which is ___ .
Of the 10 steps of glycolysis, ___ are also used in gluconeogenesis.
Under cellular conditions, ___ steps of glycolysis have delta-G-actual = 0 (approximately), meaning that they are at equilibrium (approximately).
you can adjust the enzymes at sites of large ______ to regulate the flow of molecules.
five example of phosphoester clevage rxns are...
the removal of one phosphate group from the end of ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate
PEP stands for...
the largest value of delta G occurs in _____, where three factors contribute to favorability.
The three factors that contribute to delta G PEP favorability is...
they are special processes of enol to keto tautomerization
seperation of repelling charges
formation of "happy" Pi group exhibiting increased resonance and solvation
intermediate delta G values are exhibited by those reaction exhibiting two factors, which are...
decreased repulsion between multiple negative charged groups
smaller values of delta G occur in reactions which retain only one factor, such as...
the formation of a happy inorganic phosphate ion by its removal froma neutral glucose
it is usually _____ to release a Pi group
Synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose (Pi + Glc -> G6P) with nothing else involved is ___ . It is coupled to the reaction ___ , and the combination is favorable.
ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi
the very first reaction undergone by glucose after it arrives in your cell is conversion to....
the cell makes desireable unfavorable reaction occur by...
coupling it to a larger favorable reaction
the physical link for the main overall reaction of the cell is...
the enzyme of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate provides...
a site for temporarily holding onto a phosphate group.
steps 6 and 7 of glycolysis can be viewed as one....
Step 6 of glycolysis is G3P(aldehyde) + Pi + (NAD+) -> 1,3BPG(carboylic acid derivative) + NADH. Since NADH has enough energy to make 3 ATP, creation of NADH is highly unfavorable. Synthesis of NADH
is paid for by...
oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid (derivative)
oxidize, ionize, delocalize, are the main components of hat two glycolysis steps?
steps 6 and 7
Step 6 of glycolysis is G3P(aldehyde) + Pi + (NAD+) ->
1,3BPG(carboxyl derivative) + NADH. The unfavorable factor(s) in this reaction include :
(1) attachment of "happy" Pi to an organic molecule, and (2) formation of NADH
Step 7 of glycolysis is 1,3BPG(phosphate-COOH acid anhydride) + ADP -> 3PG + ATP. Synthesis of ATP is an unfavorable factor, but this is paid for by ___ .
creation of a resonance-stabilized ionized COO- group.
Step 10 of glycolysis is PEP + ADP -> ATP + pyr. Synthesis of ATP is an unfavorable factor, but this is paid for by ___ .
enol -> keto tautomerization
in the final step of glycolysis, the price of ATP synthesis is paid by a...
rearrangement of bonds from a set that is less stable to a set that is more stable.
stable = high "bond energy" = _____ Gibbs free energy
unstable = low bond energy = _____ gibbs free energy
bond energy and gibbs free energy have _____ low/high trends.
the 10th step in glycolysis couples _____ hydrolysis to ____ synthesis.
In the 10th step in glycolysis the ADP/ATP portion is the "__________" delta G half of the coupled pair of reactions.
PEP is "peppy" meaning it has more energy than ....
the small molecules achieve their effect by binding to ....
the regulatory site (R) which is seperate and distinct from the catalytic site (C)
Binding to the regulatory sites causes...
a conformational change in the protein whih has an effect at the catalytic site a significant distance away.
The allosteric effect is when.....
Binding to the regulatory sites causes a conformational change in the protein whih has an effect at the catalytic site a significant distance away.
a high concentration of ATP indicates that a cell has...
a lot of energy stored up
A high concentration of ATP inhibits...
hydrolysis of ATP produces....
ADP, AMP and PPi as byproducts
High concentrations of ADP, AMP and Pi indicate...
low cellular energy (Low ATP)
ADP, AMP and Pi are _________ of glycolysis
Which of the following is NOT an activator of steps of glycolysis?
(AMP, ADP, Pi, Ac-CoA)
Molecules which signal high cellular energy ___ glycolysis, whereas molecules which signal low cellular energy ___ glycolysis.
(high energy) inhibit
(low energy) activate
The carbohydrates sucrose, lactose, mannose, glucose, and fructose all feed into reaction #2 or #3 of glycolysis because they all consist of
Many carbohydrates feed into one of the components of the glycolysis series, which is ___ .
In the list below, the phosphate releasing reaction with the least favorable delta-G-nult is ___ .
(glucose-6-phosphate -> Glc + Pi
ATP -> ADP + Pi
PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi0
glucose-6-phosphate -> Glc + Pi
Which of the following is NOT an inhibitor of steps of glycolysis?
In the list below, the phosphate releasing reaction with the most favorable delta-G-nult is ___ .
(ATP -> ADP + Pi
glucose-6-phosphate -> glucose + Pi
PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi)
PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) -> pyruvate + Pi
The most highly regulated step of glycolysis is step 3, since many hexoses feed into ___, which is the reactant of step 3.
ATP is an immediate substrate in step 3 of glycolysis : F6P + ATP -> 1,6FBP + ADP. It also is a "long-range" ___ of that step.
product (and therefore feedback inhibitor)
In phosphofructokinase, ATP binds ___ .
strongly to a catalytic site and weakly to a regulatory site
The enzyme kinetics curve for phosphofructokinase shows a peak at intermediate [ATP]. ATP binds as a substrate to a catalytic site and as an inhibitor to a regulatory site. The tighter binding is to the ___ site.
Phosphofructokinase catalyzes step 3 of glycolysis : F6P + ATP -> 1,6F6P + ADP. A plot of V-init vs [ATP] shows a velocity which ___ as [ATP] increases.
increases at first and then decreases
Some substrates will bind to a seperate regulatory site and make the enzyme...
Some products will bind to a seperate regulatory site and make the enzyme...
In step 1 G6P is both a ______ and a _______.
in step 3, the F6P is a _______ and a ________.
substrate and a activator
in step 10, the PEP is a _______ and a ________.
substrate and a activator
step 10 is activated by _______, the product of step 3.
inhibition of phosphofructokinase, catalyzes step ___.
ATP is both a direct co-______ of step 3 and a long range ______ of glycolysis
hexose catabolism converges at step ___.
step 3 is a key site for regulation of...
phophofructokinase has two substrates called...
F6P and cosubstrate ATP
Bypass I (the sum of all three steps) ___ .
spends 2 ATP
Acetyl-CoA is an ___ of gluconeogenesis bypass I.
Molecules which are activators of glycolysis generally ___ gluconeogenesis.
Steps of glycolysis which need to be bypassed are steps 1, 3 and 10. Thus there are 3 bypasses in gluconeogenesis. Bypass I matches glycolysis step ___ .
The enzymes which catalyze steps A and B of bypass I of gluconeogenesis are both named "carboxylases". The enzyme which is named for the reverse direction is ___ .
bypass I step B
An enzyme which catalyzes the reaction ATP + GDP -> ADP + GTP would be expected to have a delta-G-nult value which is ___ .
Considering steps 1, 3, and 10 of glycolysis, plus bypasses I, II and III of gluconeogenesis, ___ of these are downhill.
The first half of bypass I spends an ATP and "energizes" pyruvate by adding ___ to it.
an extra carbon in the form of COOH
he reaction G6P -> Glc + Pi is catalyzed by a ___ .
Step A of bypass I is catalyzed by ___ .
Bypass II of gluconeogenesis is catalyzed by ___ .
Hibernating bears and bumble bees use ___ and ___ respectively to generate heat.
a futile cycle (bees)
The enzyme which catalyzes the reaction GDP + ATP <==> GTP + ADP is ___ .
nucleoside diphosphate kinase
Gluconeogenesis consumes ___ .
2 NADH and 6 ATP (or GTP)
In order to bypass step 10, which is PEP + ADP -> pyr + ATP , you need to spend ___ total ATP (or GTP), and employ ___ total steps.
Which step in bypass I has two favorable processes?
The steps of glycolysis that are reused in gluconeogenesis are steps ___ .
2 and 4-9
The two bypasses that are very similar are bypasses ____ . Each of these is catalyzed by a ___ .
II and III
If step 1 of glycolysis (Glc + ATP -> G6P + ADP) and bypass III of gluconeogenesis (G6P -> Glc + Pi) both occur simultaneously, the net
result is (ATP -> ADP + Pi + heat). Moving glucose to pyruvate and back again is called a ___ cycle.
several different hexoses and disaccharides or hexoses all are processed by the ______phase
Ac-CoA is an eventual long-range downstream _______ of glycolysis.
pyruvate is converted into Ac-CoA by...
pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
Ac-Coa is acting in a feddback _______ role when it inhibits step 10.
the plot of phosphofructokinase velocity versus concetration of ATP exhibits a complicated shape, having V-max at ______ concentrations of the substrate ATP.
the ATP substrate consumed by step 3 in the _______ phase of glycolysis ultimately is recovered as a product in step ___ of the payoff phase
what are the three fates for the G6P
isomerized into F6P
Converted into glycogen
converted into ribose
the pathway of converting G6P into ribose is called...
pentose phosphate shunt
the first phase of pentose phosphate shunt involves...
converting glucose from a six carbon aldose chain ending in aldehyde into a six carbon chain ending in a carboxylinc acid group
oxidation of glucose is balanced by reduction of...
in the second phase of pentose phosphate shunt you..
convert the 6C chain into CO2 and a 5C chain (oxidative decarboxylation
subsequent energy production or resynthesis of glucose does not happen by.... but instead
recarboxylating the pentose
3 riboses are arranged into 2 F6P
7C isomerization name=
stacking rules (3)
1) reactions transfer 2 or 3 dominoes (carbons) from the top of one stack to the top of another stack
2) no stack is ever shorter than 3 dominoes or ever taller than 7 dominoes (3,4,5,6,7 - allowed)
3) the bottom of each stack, which includes the D-carbon found in glyceraldehyde, is not altered.
the brain consumes glucose but will not import...
we have a constant blood glucose level of...
the liver is the principal organ in....
buffering the glucose levels
muscele cells are different from brain cells because...
muscle cells will take sugar and fats
muscle cells do store some glucose and glycogen
the net removal of phosphates from UTP and G6P to provide two Pi's provides the energy for...
anabolic biosynthesis of the glycogen polymer
a synthase is..
an enzyme which has two substrates, namely the 2 molecules which join to make a larger product)
the two classes of lipids are
water-soluble hormones/lipids, cannot...
enter the cell they are affecting
examples of lipid soluble hormones are...
examples of water-soluble hormones are...
epinephrine, small proteins - glucagon and insulin
Adrenalin is the ________ message
cAMP is the _______ message
epinephrine is also called....
there are _____ aimno acids in the final structure of insulin
glucagon has ____ amino acids in its structure
epinephrine is a substituted amine which is derived from ....