Parts of a Verb
- 5 Characteristics:
List Verb Persons and Endings
- 1st: s) -o/-m I pl) -mus we
- 2nd: s) -s you pl) -tis ya'll
- 3rd: s) -t he/she/it pl) -nt they
Present Active Infinitives
- 2nd Principal Part:
- I laudare to praise
- II moneo to advise
- III legere to read
- IIIio capere to capture
- IV audire to hear
Present Active Imperatives
- Stem of the 2nd Pricipal Part
- I s) lauda pl) lauda-te (you/ya'll) praise!
- II s) mone pl) mone-te (you/ya'll) advise!
- III s) lege pl) leg-ite (you/ya'll) read!
- IIIio s) cape pl) cap-ite (you/ya'll) capture!
- IV s) audi pl) audi-te (you/ya'll) hear!
What is an adverb?
a word that modifies a verb, adj, or another adverb (usually placed before that word)
- non valet : not (she) is well --> she is not well
- "well" is the verb, modified by "not"
4 Principal Parts of a Verb
- 1. Present Active Infinitive: laudo, I praise
- 2. Present Active Infinitive: laudare, to praise
- 3. Perfect Active Indicative: lautavi, I praised, have praised
- 4. Perfect Passive Participle: laudatum, praised, having been praised
What is an Object of a Preposition?
a noun or pronoun that occurs with (usually after) a preposition, together they create a "prepositional phrase" that modifies a noun or verb
What is a Prepositional Phrase?
preposition + noun/pronoun; modifies a noun or verb:
noun: agricola ad portam est vir bonus = the farmer at the gate is a good man, "at the gate" tells you which farmer
verb: agricola ad portam ambulat = the farmer is walking to the gate, "to the gate" tells you where he's verbing
Common Prepositions for the Cases
- Nom -none-
- Gen of, -'s
- Dat to, for
- Ac direct obj, usually gets prep.phrase
- Ab by, with, from, in
What is an Appositive?
- a noun positioned beside another noun as an explanatory equivalent:
- Tony, filium meum, in agro videt
- I see Tony, my son, in the field
- (son = Tony)
What is an Intransitive Verb?
a verb that connects its subject with a noun or adjective in the predicate
- *sentence is divided into:
- [subject w/ it's modifiers] + [predicate: verb and its dependent words and phrases]
What is a Predicate Nominative?
Nouns and their adjectives in the Predicate part of a sentence, usually connected to the subject with a linking verb (ie: is, are, to be)