1. Dual language
    • Dual
    • language is a form of education in which students are taught literacy and
    • content in two languages. 

    There are 4 types
  2. Developmental,or maintenance, bilingual programs
    • These enroll primarily students who are
    • native speakers of the partner language.
  3. Two-way(bilingual) immersion programs.
    • These enroll a balance of native English
    • speakers and native speakers of the partner language.
  4. Foreign language immersion
    • language immersion or one-way immersion. These enroll
    • primarily native English speakers.
  5. Heritage language programs.
    • These mainly enroll students who are dominant in English but
    • whose parents, grandparents, or other ancestors spoke the partner language.
  6. transitional bilingual programs
    • Where the aim is to transition students out of their native
    • language to English.
  7. Additive bilingualism
    • Dual
    • dual language programs are considered to promote "additive
    • bilingualism", meaning that students' primary language is developed and
    • maintained as a second language is added.
  8. Foreign language education
    • where students receive less than half a day studying in the
    • partner language, and often only study language arts and literature in that language as opposed to content area subjects such as mathematics, science, and
    • social studies.
  9. Full immersion, or 90/10
    • Programs teach in the partner language 90% of the time in the primary
    • grades (usually kindergarten and first grade) and 10% in English, and
    • gradually adjust the ratio each year until the partner language is used
    • 50% and English is used 50% by third or fourth grade (sometimes later if the
    • program extends through eighth grade or beyond).
  10. Partial immersion, or 50/50,
    • Programs teach 50% of the day in English and 50% of the day in the partner
    • language at all grade levels.
  11. Instructional scaffolding is
    •  A learning process designed to promote a deeper learning. Scaffolding is the
    • support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the
    • student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning
    • goals (Sawyer, 2006).
Card Set
Bilingual Key Concepts