What are the three requirements that a test must meet in order to produce acceptable measurements of evaluation?
Reliability, Objectivity, Validity
The 5 Components of Fitness are:
Muscular Endurance, Muscular Strength, Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Flexibility
Which test has the least amount of subjectivity?
When doing skinfold body-fat measurement, you should ensure the same person administers the test on follow-up tests. This ensures high ________.
The gold-standard test for cardiorespiratory endurance is:
What are the three recommended times of the year to test a sports team?
End of pre-season, end of season, end of post-season
Name 3 careers in the field of exercise science and give a short description of what they do and what background you need in terms of education and certification.
Physical Therapist: a therapist that helps get people back on their feet if they have been injured or have had to have surgery. They work on strengthening muscles which can sometimes be painful but it is very beneficial for the patient in order to get back to health. Most physical therapists now are required to obtain a doctorate degree.
Strength and Conditioning Coach: works for sports teams at the high school, collegiate and professional level. Main job is to strengthen and condition athletes using specificity according to what sport they coach. Most strength and conditioning coaches must be certified through NCSSA and have at least a bachelor's degree.
Personal Trainer: designs workout plans for different individuals based on goals and
needs. They must also have a great understanding of how to do specific
exercises correct so their clients are not injured. A degree is not
required but can be obtained; many become personal trainers through
Name the three energy systems.
Phosphagen, Glycolytic, Oxidative
During the first several seconds of Tug-o-war, which energy system provides the bulk of the energy?
During the last few miles of a mini-marathon, which energy system is providing the majority of the energy?
What very popular supplement helps improve the phosphagen system? How does it do so?
Creatine, it improves the phosphagen system by adding more phosphates to the blood for ATP production
Lactic acid causes a burning sensation and will cause an exerciser to stop; it is mainly the result of which energy system?
Write the predominant energy system for each activity.
Marathon: _________ Football _________ Wrestling _________
Pole Vault _________ Tennis _________
Write the predominant energy system for each activity.
Marathon Oxidative Football Phosphagen Wrestling Glycolytic
Pole Vault Phosphagen Tennis Phosphagen
All three energy systems rely heavily on oxygen. (True/False)
After 15 or so seconds of Tug-Of-War, which energy system takes over?
List 3 physiological reasons why one's cardiovascular conditioning improves with regular cardiovascular endurace training. Also, list whether they are central or peripheral components.
1. The heart will get bigger: central
2. Increased capillaries (mostly in legs): peripheral
3. The stroke volume increases: central
List 2 physiological reasons why muscular strength increases with regular resistance training. Also, list whether they are central or peripheral components.
1. Muscle fibers hypertrophy and get bigger: peripheral
2. The Nervous System learns to recruit muscle fibers better over time: central
The Principle of ________ explains why a great sprinter may not be a great distance runner.
What are the 4 components of the FITT principle and how can you use each of them to improve John's bench press.He is currently bench pressing 3 times per week with 6 sets of 10 reps and 100# for each set for a 15 min workout.
Frequency (how often)- up bench pressing to 4 times per week
Intensity (how hard you work)- add 5lb= 105#
Time (how long you workout)- add one more set to increase the time
Type (what exercise you are doing)- change to a decline press
A sprinter has a greater percentage of _____-twitch MM fibers compared to a marathon runner. What are 3 other adjectives for that muscle fiber?
White, large, type II
A marathoner has a greater percentage of ____-twitch MM fibers compared to a sprinter. What are 3 other adjectives for that MM fiber?
Red, small, type I
The repetition zone for hypertrophy is:
What is the importance of the "intermediate muscle fibers," why should they be considered when designing a training program for an athlete?
Intermediate fibers can be trained either to be Type I (slow-twitch) or Type II (fast-twitch). Depending on your sport, you should take this into consideration and work on exercises specific to your sport and what type of MM fiber would be most beneficial.
The training intensity (the % of 1-Rep Max) for "power" training is (greater than/less than) the training intensity for hypertrophy training.
To increase maximal power, your repitions should be in the:
When training to increase "power" the athlete will spend the majority of the time using what energy system?
What historic event sparked the government's interest in physical fitness and the need for science-based exercise and fitness programs?
World War I and II
List the 4 former exercise "myths" that have been proved wrong by science.
1. Athlete's heart is dangerous in cardio training because enlarged hearts aren't good.
2. "No pain, No gain" was a popular motto because light workouts didn't produce results.
3. People over the age of 40 cannot benefit from exercise.
4. Muscles slow you down
What university created the Fatique Laboratory that greatly expanded the study of exercise science in the U.S.?
What are the 2 primary areas of study or inquiry for exercise science?
Health-related and sports-related
Exercise science is as an academic discipline in colleges and universities has existed only since the mid to late 19__'s.
Muscle soreness is mainly a result of ___________ __________.
What are the definitions for gross anatomy, histology, and comparitive anatomy?
Gross anatomy: the study of cadavers where anatomy can be seen without the use of a microscope
Histology: the study of muscles and tissues viewed microscopically
Comparative anatomy: relating the anatomy of animals to humans: For example, a birds wing to a human's arm
Which of the following cardio training methods would you recommend for a football lineman?
Who is Milo of Crotona and what Fitness principle does his story represent?
Milo of Crotona was an Olympian that carried a baby calf on his back until it grew up. He won the Olympics because of his principle of overload. Which states that in order to make gains, you must modify your workouts to see improvements.
What type of cardio is best for fat loss: steady-state heart rate or high-intensity intervals? Why?
High Intensity Intercals keeps your body alert and keeps it from adapting to the same steady workout. It also works your body after you workout and because of you will feel afterburn.
What does G.A.S. stand for? Draw a graph representing what happens with G.A.S.?