Mental Health Ch. 1

  1. The Who defines mental health as: 
    a state of well being in which each individual is able to realize his or her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, and make a contribution to the community
  2. acetylcholine
    A neurotransmitter synthesized by choline acetyltransferase from acetyl coenzyme A and choline.
  3. acrophobia
    Fear of high places.
  4. acupuncture
    Ancient Chinese health practice that involves puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular locations on the patient's body. Acupuncture is believed to help reduce pain or change a bodily function.
  5. affect
    Feeling, mood, or emotional tone.
  6. agnosia
    Loss of the ability to recognize familiar objects.
  7. agonist
    In pharmacology, a substance that acts with, enhances, or potentiates a specific chemical activity.
  8. agoraphobia
    Fear of many situations, such as open spaces and the marketplace.
  9. agranulocytosis
    A significant decrease in the white blood cell count that does not return to normal.
  10. agraphia
    Loss of a previous ability to write, resulting from brain injury or brain disease.
  11. akinesia
    Absence or diminution of voluntary motion.
  12. alexithymia
    Difficulty naming and describing emotions
  13. allele
    Small defects or variations in genes.
  14. amnesia
    Loss of memory for events within a specific period of time; may be temporary or permanent.
  15. amygdala
    The part of the limbic system that modulates common emotional states such as feelings of anger and aggression, love, and comfort in social settings.
  16. anhedonia
    Inability or decreased ability to experience pleasure, joy, intimacy, and closeness.
  17. anorexia
    A medical term that signifies a loss of appetite. However, a person with anorexia nervosa may not have any loss of appetite and often is preoccupied with food and eating. A person with this condition may suppress the desire for food to control his or her eating.
  18. antagonist
    In pharmacology, a substance that blocks or inhibits a specific chemical activity.
  19. anticholinergic effect
    Effect caused by drugs that block acetylcholine receptors. Common anticholinergic effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary hesitancy.
  20. antipsychotic drugs
    Drugs that have the ability to decrease psychotic, paranoid, and disorganized thinking and positively alter bizarre behaviors; they are thought to reduce the effects of the neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the dopamine receptors.
  21. aphasia
    Difficulty finding the right word
  22. apraxia
    Inability or difficulty in performing a purposeful organized task or similar skilled activities.
  23. ataxia
    Difficulty walking.
  24. autism
    A pervasive developmental disorder characterized by marked impairment of social and cognitive abilities.
  25. axon
    The part of the neuron that conveys electrical impulses away from the cell body.
  26. bibliotherapy
    Use of literature to help patients identify and express feelings within the structure and safety of the nurse-patient relationship.
  27. bioavailability
    The amount of a drug that reaches systemic circulation unchanged
  28. biofeedback
    A technique for gaining control over unconscious body functions such as blood pressure and heartbeat to achieve relaxation or the relief from stress-related physical symptoms; involves the use of self-monitoring equipment.
  29. bipolar disorder
    A subgroup of the affective disorders characterized by at least one episode of manic behavior, with or without a history of episodes of depression.
  30. bradykinesia
    Slow or retarded movement
  31. bulimia
    An eating disorder characterized by the excessive and uncontrollable intake of large amounts of food (binges), alternating with purging activities such as self-induced vomiting; use of cathartics, diuretics, or both; and self-starvation. These alternating behaviors characterize the eating disorder bulimia nervosa.
  32. catatonia
    A state of psychologically induced immobilization at times interrupted by episodes of extreme agitation.
  33. catecholamine
    A group of biogenic amines derived from phenylalanine and containing the catechol nucleus. Certain of these amines, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, are neurotransmitters and exert an important influence on peripheral and central nervous system activity.
  34. cathexis
    A psychoanalytical term used to describe the emotional attachment or bond to an idea, an object, or, most commonly, a person.
  35. cerebrum
    The largest structure in the central nervous system; can be subdivided into right and left hemispheres and contains four main lobes.
  36. chorea
    Greek term for dance. The choreas are demonstrated as hyperkinetic disorders characterized by involuntary, unpredictable, and random movements of the trunk, head, face, and limbs.
  37. circadian rhythm
    A 24-hour biological rhythm that influences specific regulatory functions such as the sleep-wake cycle, body temperature, and hormonal and neurotransmitter secretions.
  38. claustrophobia
    Dread of closed places.
  39. clonic
    State in which rigidity and relaxation succeed each other.
  40. coma
    Depressed consciousness wherein even extreme stimulation of the reticular activating system will not cause a response.
  41. confabulation
    A confused person's tendency to make up a response to a question when he or she cannot remember the answer.
  42. cyclothymia
    A chronic mood disturbance (of at least 2 years' duration) involving both hypomanic and dysthymic mood swings. Delusions are never present, and these mood swings usually do not warrant hospitalization or grossly impair a person's social, occupational, or interpersonal functioning.
  43. delirium
    The medical diagnostic term that describes an organic mental disorder characterized by a cluster of cognitive impairments with an acute onset and the identification of a specific precipitating stressor.
  44. dementia
    The medical diagnostic term that describes an organic mental disorder characterized by a cluster of cognitive impairments that are generally of gradual onset and irreversible. The predisposing and precipitating stressors may or may not be identifiable.
  45. dendrite
    The part of the neuron that conveys electrical impulses toward the cell body.
  46. depersonalization
     A feeling of unreality and alienation from oneself. One has difficulty distinguishing self from others, and one's body has an unreal or strange quality about it. The subjective experience of the partial or total disruption of one's ego and the disintegration and disorganization of one's self-concept.
  47. derealization
    The false perception by a person that his or her environment has changed.
  48. dereism
    A loss of connection with reality and logic that occurs just before autistic thinking noted in schizophrenia; thoughts become private and idiosyncratic.
  49. diencephalon
    Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and metathalamus.
  50. distractibility
    Inability to maintain attention; shifting from one area or topic to another with minimal provocation.
  51. dysarthria
    Difficulty in articulating.
  52. dyskinesia
    Literally, "late-appearing abnormal movements," a variable complex of choreiform or athetoid movements developing in patients exposed to antipsychotic drugs. Typical movements include tongue writhing or protrusion; chewing; lip puckering; choreiform finger movements; toe and ankle movements; leg jiggling; and movements of neck, trunk, and pelvis.
  53. dyslexia
    Difficulty in reading.
  54. dysphoria
    Disorder of affect characterized by depression, malaise, and anguish.
  55. dysthymia
    A depression that is mild to moderate in degree and is characterized by a chronic depressive syndrome that usually exists for many years. The depressive mood disturbance is hard to distinguish from the person's usual pattern of functioning, and the person has minimal social or occupational impairment.
  56. dystonia
    Muscle spasms of the face, head, neck, and back; usually an acute side effect of neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medication.
  57. echolalia
    Mimicking or imitating the speech of another person.
  58. echopraxia
    Mimicking or imitating the movements of another person.
  59. ego-dystonic
    Symptoms that are unacceptable to the person who has them and not compatible with the person's view of himself or herself.
  60. ego-syntonic
    Symptoms that include behaviors or beliefs that do not seem to bother the person or that seem right to the person.
  61. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    An effective treatment for depression that consists of inducing a grand mal seizure by passing an electrical current through electrodes that are applied to the temples. The administration of a muscle relaxant minimizes seizure activity, preventing damage to long bones and cervical vertebrae.
  62. encopresis
    The repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places (e.g., clothing, floor), whether involuntary or intentional.
  63. endorphin
    A naturally produced chemical (peptide) with morphine-like action; usually found in the brain and associated with the reduction of pain and with feelings of well-being.
  64. enuresis
    Nocturnal and daytime involuntary discharge of urine.
  65. epilepsy
    Disorder of the central nervous system in which the major symptom is a seizure. The seizure is caused by a temporary disturbance of brain impulses.
  66. epinephrine
    A catecholamine secreted by the adrenal gland and by fibers of the sympathetic nervous system; responsible for many of the physical manifestations of fear and anxiety.
  67. etiology
    Study of the causes of diseases, including both direct and predisposing causes.
  68. eugenics
    The study of improving a species by artificial selection; usually refers to the selective breeding of humans.
  69. euphoria
    False sense of elation or well being; most notable in the manic phase of bipolar disorder.
  70. formication
    Tactile hallucination or illusion involving insects crawling on the body or under the skin.
  71. fugue
    Period of personality dissociation with memory loss.
  72. genome
    All the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism; its size is generally given as its total number of base pairs.
  73. glutamate
    Major excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system with receptors throughout the brain.
  74. grand mal seizure
    Type of generalized seizure in which there is a loss of consciousness and convulsions.
  75. hallucination
    Perceptual distortion arising from any of the five senses.
  76. hallucinogen
    An abused drug that causes a psychotic-like experience.
  77. hippocampus
    The area located in the inside fold of the temporal lobe of the brain below the thalamus; the site of the intersection between the storage of memories and their reproduction of emotional coloring.
  78. homeopathy
    Unconventional Western medicine system that is based on the principle that "like cures like" (i.e., that the same substance in large doses produces the symptoms of an illness and in very minute doses cures it).
  79. homeostasis
    The way the body, using feedback mechanisms, maintains a stable internal environment, despite changes in the external environment.
  80. hypermetamorphosis
    The need to touch everything in sight.
  81. hypersomnia
    Disorders of excessive somnolence.
  82. hypochondria
    A somatoform disorder characterized by the belief that one is ill without evidence of organic impairment, involving somatic overconcern with and morbid attention to details of body functioning.
  83. hypomania
    An elevated mood with symptoms less severe than those of mania. A person in hypomania does not experience impairment in reality testing, nor do the symptoms markedly impair the person's social, occupational, or interpersonal functioning.
  84. hypothalamus
    The part of the limbic system that rests deep within the brain and helps regulate basic human functions such as sleep-rest patterns, body temperature, and physical drives of hunger and sex.
  85. hypoxia
    Inadequate oxygen at the cellular level, characterized by cyanosis, tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion.
  86. idiopathic
    Without known cause.
  87. impotence
    The inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection of sufficient quality to engage in successful sexual intercourse.
  88. individuation
    A process that leads one to self-definition.
  89. insomnia
    Disorder of initiating or maintaining sleep.
  90. libido
    Sexual drive.
  91. malingering
    Deliberate feigning of an illness.
  92. mania
    An unstable elevated mood in which delusions, poor judgment, and other signs of impaired reality testing are evident. During a manic episode, there is marked impairment in social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning.
  93. masochism
    Unconscious or conscious gratification obtained when a person experiences mental or physical pain; often used to refer to deviant sexual behaviors.
  94. meninges
    Outer lining of the central nervous system composed of the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.
  95. narcissism
    A maladaptive social response characterized by egocentric attitude, fragile self-esteem, constant seeking of praise and admiration, and envy.
  96. narcolepsy
    A condition characterized by brief attacks of deep sleep.
  97. negativism
    Opposition or resistance, either covert or overt, to outside suggestions or advice.
  98. neuron
    The basic functional unit of brain structures of the nervous system.
  99. neurosis
    Category of health problems distinguished by the following characteristics: symptoms are distressing to the person, reality testing is intact, behavior is overall consistent with social norms, problem is enduring or recurrent, and there is no apparent organic cause.
  100. neurotransmitter
    Chemical messenger of the nervous system, manufactured in one neuron and released from the axon into the synapse and received by the dendrite of the next neuron.
  101. nigra
    Literally, "black substance." A pigmented area of the midbrain where dopamine is synthesized.
  102. norepinephrine
    Catecholamine neurotransmitter that is primarily synthesized in neurons of the locus ceruleus in the pons. Deficiencies of norepinephrine are linked to depression.
  103. nystagmus
    Involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyeball.
  104. obesity
    A weight gain of at least 20% over the acceptable standard or ideal weight.
  105. orientation
    The ability to relate the self correctly to time, place, and person.
  106. palliative care
    Medical and nursing care that provides comfort to a moribund person without prolonging the dying process.
  107. paranoia
    Any intense and strongly defended irrational suspicion. These ideas cannot be corrected by experiences and cannot be modified by facts or reality.
  108. paraphilia
    A condition in which one experiences sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or sexual acts involving nonhuman objects, the suffering or humiliation of one's partner, children, or other nonconsenting persons.
  109. parasomnia
    Disorder associated with sleep stages, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, nightmares, and enuresis.
  110. perseveration
    Involuntary, excessive continuation or repetition of a single response, idea, or activity; may apply to speech or movement, but most often verbal.
  111. petit mal seizure
    Variant of absence of seizures that is characterized by a three-per-second spike and wave electroencephalographic pattern.
  112. pharmacodynamics
    The study of the effects of the drug on the body, particularly the interaction of the drug on the targeted receptor site.
  113. pharmacokinetics
    The study of the process and rates of drug absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion in the organism.
  114. phobia
    A morbid fear associated with extreme anxiety.
  115. phototherapy
    Light therapy that consists of exposing patients to artificial therapeutic lights about 5 to 20 times brighter than indoor lighting and more consistent with the light spectrum of natural sunlight.
  116. plethysmograph
    A diagnostic test for males and females that may help determine arousal patterns and level of arousal and assesses blood flow to the genitals.
  117. polypharmacy
    Use of combinations of psychoactive drugs in a patient at the same time without determining whether one drug by itself is effective; can cause drug interactions and may increase the incidence of adverse reactions.
  118. premorbid
    State before the onset of the disorder.
  119. priapism
    Sustained and painful penile erection
  120. psychiatry
    The science of treating disorders of the psyche; the medical specialty that is derived from the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
  121. psychoanalysis
    A therapeutic approach based on the belief that behavioral disorders are related to unresolved, anxiety-provoking childhood experiences that are repressed into the unconscious. The goal of psychoanalysis is to bring repressed experiences into conscious awareness and to learn healthier means of coping with the related anxiety.
  122. psychogenic
    Physical conditions affected by psychological factors.
  123. psychopathology
    Study of underlying processes, both biological and psychosocial, that lead to mental disorders.
  124. psychopharmacology
    Drugs that treat the symptoms of mental illness and whose actions in the brain provide models to better understand the mechanisms of mental disorders.
  125. psychosis
    A category of health problems distinguished by regressive behavior, personality disintegration, reduced level of awareness, great difficulty in functioning adequately, and gross impairment in reality testing.
  126. psychotherapy
    A treatment modality based on the development of a trusting relationship between patient and therapist for the purpose of exploring and modifying the patient's behavior in a satisfying direction.
  127. psychotropic
    Affecting the mind.
  128. puberty
    A series of biological changes that transform the young person physically from a child into a reproductively mature adult.
  129. rationalization
    Offering a socially acceptable or apparently logical explanation to justify or make acceptable otherwise unacceptable impulses, feelings, behaviors, and motives.
  130. refractory
    A term used when an individual is not responsive to medication or other types of treatment, generally requiring new or different therapeutic measures.
  131. regression
    A retreat in the face of stress to behavior that is characteristic of an earlier level of development.
  132. rehabilitation
    The process of enabling a mentally ill person to return to the highest possible level of functioning.
  133. relapse
    Return of symptoms.
  134. repression
    Involuntary exclusion of a painful or conflictual thought, impulse, or memory from awareness. It is the primary ego defense, and other mechanisms tend to reinforce it.
  135. sadism
    Intense sexual arousal or desire; acts, fantasies, or other stimuli involving the infliction of real or simulated psychological or physical suffering (including humiliation).
  136. schizophrenia
    A severe disturbance of thought or association characterized by impaired reality testing, hallucinations, delusions, and limited socialization.
  137. serotonin
    Monoamine neurotransmitter from the indolamine family. It is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Deficiencies in serotonin are linked to depression.
  138. somatic therapy
    Treatment that involves manipulations of the body, such as the use of medications or electroconvulsive therapy.
  139. somatization
    The expression of psychological stress through physical symptoms.
  140. stigma
    An attribute or trait deemed by the person's social environment as negative, different, and diminishing.
  141. striatum
    Basal ganglia that include the caudate and putamen.
  142. subconscious
    Often called the preconscious; includes experiences, thoughts, feelings, and desires that might not be in immediate awareness but can be recalled to consciousness. The subconscious mind helps repress unpleasant thoughts or feelings.
  143. sublimation
    The unconscious process of substituting constructive and socially acceptable activities for strong impulses that are not acceptable in their original form, such as strong aggressive or sexual drives.
  144. substantia nigra
    Literally, "black substance." A pigmented area of the midbrain where dopamine is synthesized.
  145. sulcus
    Groove separating gyri. Deep sulci are referred to as fissures.
  146. suppression
    A process that is the conscious analogy of repression. It is the intentional exclusion of material from consciousness.
  147. synapse
    The gap between the membrane of one neuron and that of another. The synapse is the point at which the transmission of nerve impulses occurs.
  148. synesthesia
    A phenomenon experienced by people on hallucinogenic drugs; described as hearing colors or seeing sounds.
  149. tangentiality
    An association disturbance in which a person's thought and speech stray from the original discussion, never return to the central point, and never answer the original question.
  150. tardive dyskinesia
    Literally, "late-appearing abnormal movements," a variable complex of choreiform or athetoid movements developing in patients exposed to antipsychotic drugs. Typical movements include tongue writhing or protrusion; chewing; lip puckering; choreiform finger movements; toe and ankle movements; leg jiggling; and movements of neck, trunk, and pelvis.
  151. thalamus
    Part of the limbic system and primarily a regulatory structure that relays all sensory information, except smell, from the peripheral nervous system to the cortex of the central nervous system.
  152. tyrosine
    Amino acid that is the precursor to dopamin
  153. unconscious
    Repressed memories, feelings, thoughts, or wishes that are not available to the conscious mind. Usually such memories, feelings, thoughts, or wishes harbor intense anxiety and can greatly influence an individual's behavior.
  154. vaginismus
    Recurrent or persistent involuntary spasm of the musculature of the outer third of the vagina that interferes with coitus.
  155. ventricle
    System of connected brain cavities that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, including the lateral ventricles (in the central portion of the telencephalon), the third ventricle (which runs between the thalami), the fourth ventricle (in the pons and medulla), and the connecting cerebral aqueduct (in the midbrain).
  156. vesicle
    Storage sac at the synaptic terminal.
Card Set
Mental Health Ch. 1
Evolve Vocab for mental health nursing ch. 1