Social Studies Generalist - Part 3.txt

  1. B.C.E., the Chinese had discovered bronze working and were making tools and weapons from iron by 600 B.C.E.
    Yellow River
  2. Around 2000 B.C.E. in what is now labeled as the Middle East, the Hebrews (later known as Israelites and Jews) brought _____ (worship of one deity) to the world. Other civilizations believed in _____ (worship of many gods).
    Monotheism; polytheism
  3. The Greek word for city-states is polis, which is where the word politics originates. The largest of the Greek city-states, _____, formed a new type of governmental systems in which its citizens (all free men) decided their laws. This was called a direct democracy, or rule by the people.
  4. The _____ are considered to have laid the foundation of Western Civilization. Greek writers and philosophers such as Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.), Plato (428-347 B.C.E.), and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.), are still influential in Western thought.
  5. Macedonia, north of Athens, produced _____ ____ _____ (356-323 B.C.E.), who conquered much of the land from Eastern Europe through much of India. His influence spread Greek ideas, including democracy, throughout his empire.
    Alexander the Great
  6. As the Greek civilization declined, the new powerful civilization of ____ arose in the Mediterranean region. As Rome expanded its territory, a series of internal struggles began.
  7. Representative government (the _____) started to fail and political power began to be concentrated in a single ruler ( a ______).
    Republic; dictatorship
  8. _____ _____ was, perhaps, the most famous Roman ruler, followed by the first true dictator of the Roman Empire, _____.
    Julius Caesar; Augustus
  9. The _____ _____ lasted roughly from 31 B.C.E. until 476 C.E. (the Common Era, or the Christian Era; formerly A.D.) and , at 
  10. Current paleontologists have located the remains of the first _____ in Africa (near modern-day Ethiopia). An important concept in the development of civilization is the move from hunting/gathering to the domestication of plants and animals. This allowed people to live in settlements rather than have to gather food in a nomadic life.
  11. Although evidence shows humans to have been in the Middle East and Asia long before, from 3500 to 2000 B.C.E. (Before the Common Era or Before the Christian Era), river systems in the Middle East, India, and China saw the rise of _____ _____ _____ _____ _____.
    Four major river valley civilizations
  12. One of the earliest river valley civilizations was in the Middle East in the region of Mesopotamia (meaning land between the waters) near present day Iraq. This land was part of the _____ _____ and was located between the _____ and _____ _____ and extended down along the Nile.
    Fertile Crescent; Tigris and Euphrates river
  13. In the Middle East, agricultural settlements along the _____ _____ in Egypt led to the creation of a major civilization in 3100 B.C.E.
    Nile River
  14. Egyptians created a system of communication through written pictorial characters called _____.
  15. We are able to read ancient hieroglyphics because of the discovery in 1799 of the _____ _____, carved in 196 B.C.E. This stone contains text written by priests to honor Ptolemy, a pharaoh (a king of Egypt) and continues to explain some governmental decrees.
    Rosetta Stone
  16. A third major civilization, the _____ _____ _____, developed around the same time, 2600 B.C.E., on the coast of the Arabian Sea in present-day Pakistan.
    Indus River Civilization
  17. The fourth major river valley civilization began in China, along the _____ _____. By 20 times, stretched north to the island of Britain (up to HadrianÕs Wall near Scotland), west to Spain, south to Egypt, and also covered much of the Middle East.
    Roman Empire
  18. In 380 C.E. Christianity was made the official religion of the empire by the _____ _____.
    Emperor Constantine
  19. The Golden Age of China, lasting almost 1,000 years, began in about 600 B.C.E. and was marked by modern papermaking, development of the compass, paper money, gunpowder, and the teachings of _____ and _____ (from China) and others who established the literary, moral, and religious traditions of Chinese society that would remain for centuries.
    Confucius and Buddha
  20. Beginning about 200 B.C.E., _____ entered the first of its four imperial dynasties. The first emperor to unify the nation was from the Qin (Chin) dynasty. The name China is thought to have derived from the name of this dynasty, and it was during this period that the Great Wall was completed.
  21. The Han dynasty was one of the most prosperous, the strongest, and longest lasting of the Chinese dynasties, and it was during this time that the _____ _____ caravan trade route to the West first opened due to the western expansion of the empire.
    Silk Road
  22. In the Middle East a new faith, _____, emerged in the 600s C.E. Founded by a wealthy merchant from Mecca, _____, who, following a holy vision, spent his life spreading the message he received in the vision. Like Judaism and Christianity, Islamic faith has only a single deity.
    Islam; Mohammed
  23. The world Islam comes from an Arabic phrase meaning to submit to God. Followers of Islam, called _____ (which comes from the phrase servant of God), follow teachings laid out in the Koran (Quran).
  24. Wealthy landowners gave peasants their protection; in return, these serfs had to work the land and give most of the product produced by their labors to the owners. This was called _____.
  25. In the years between 1095 and 1270, approximately eight Crusaders were led by Christian kings and Popes against those (mostly Muslims) who held the Holy Land. The _____ _____, who were warriors priests, were one group who fought in these wars.
    Knight Templar
  26. In England, citizens who had been ruled under an absolute monarchy began to tire of kings who were wasteful and unjust. The _____ _____ (1215), imposed on England’s King John by his barons, provided the first checks on the powers of the king. This document is considered to be the forerunner of constitutional law and our own Bill of Rights.
    Magna Carta
  27. _____ _____ and members of this family were some of the first Europeans believed to have traveled through Asia on the Silk Road. He returned to dictate about many of the wonders he saw and experienced, and these descriptions and maps of his travels spurred on other voyages and eventual discoveries (such as that of Christopher Columbus).
    Marco Polo
  28. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, around 1300, a revival of culture and intellect began in southern Europe, being especially strong on the Italian peninsula. This period, referred to as the _____ (meaning ÒrebirthÓ of the classical idea) lasted until approximately 1600. Artists such as Michelangelo and inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus (astronomy), and Newton (laws of motion) led the way to new knowledge and enlightenment.
  29. The _____ _____ began in1517 when a monk named _____ _____ protested against the many abuses of the then powerful Catholic Church.
    Protestant Reformation; Martin Luther
  30. An _____ _____ or _____ _____ is a war between or among ethnic groups and is often the result of ethnic nationalism.
    Ethnic conflict; ethnic war
  31. ______ _____ are people who identify themselves as a part of particular group through a common culture past, race, religion, or nation.
    Ethnic groups
  32. Not all ethnic conflicts escalate into war. ______, for example, has a long history between the majority of Flemish speakers and the French-speaking Walloon minority.
  33. For more than 170 years, Belgium has enjoyed a high level of political and economic development. The same is true in _____, which has longstanding issues which a _____ movement.
    Canada; secession
  34. Ethnic groups are allowed to control the regions of the country where that group is in the majority, while respecting basic minority rights. This prevents a zero-sum power struggle between ethnic groups, which, unfortunately, erupted in _____ and _____.
    Rwanda; Kosovo
  35. In 1994, the Hutu majority in Rwanda committed _____ (deliberately attempting to remove a people by killing and hurting anyone of a particular ethnic, religious, racial, or national group) against the Tutsi minority killing hundreds of thousands.
  36. Genocide
  37. Following the death of its president, Marshal Tito, Yugoslavia experienced major ethnic conflicts. Slobodan _____, a Serb, tried to integrate ethnic groups in the region into a greater Serbia.
  38. The 1995 Dayton Accords recognized the existence of _____ as a separate nation, and the ethnic conflict ended there; however, this agreement did not recognize Kosovo as independent.
  39. In 1999, NATO forces, under the command of American _____ _____ _____, began a bombing campaign that drove the Serbs from the region.
    General Wesley Clark
  40. Several British kings tried to subdue the Irish population, depriving the rebellious families of their lands and awarding those lands to British settlers. This was called a _____ _____ _____.
    Policy of plantation
  41. When the _____ _____ ______ (or giving the government back to Ireland) began to gain momentum, those in the northern portion of Ireland with the strongest ties to Protestant Britain resisted.
    Home Rule movement
  42. _____ _____ erupted, however, when the IRA (Irish Republican Army) of the North, an underground group of pro-Catholic dissenters, sought to unite Ireland into one country.
    The Troubles
  43. _____ _____ and a small group of _____ were the first Europeans to set foot on North America, probably as early as 1000 C.E. in present-day Canada.
    Leif Ericsson; Vikings
  44. The Spaniards, landed first in the West Indies under the command of _____ _____ established colonies in South America and Mexico.
    Christopher Columbus
  45. In 1565, Spaniards explored much of Florida and founded, a settlement as _____ _____ (the oldest settlement to be continuously occupied within present day United States).
    St. Augustine
  46. Christopher Columbus argued his case with _____ _____ and _____ _____ of Spain for sailing west to find the riches of the Far East market.
    King Ferdinard; Queen Isabella
  47. In 1492, his three ships, the _____, the _____, and the _____ _____, made landfall in the New World in the islands of San Salvador.
    Nina; Pinta; Santa Maria
  48. America was named for _____ _____, who was said to have voyaged with Columbus and to have completed later voyages (which he mapped). Vespucci believed that Columbus has discovered a New World and, afterward, maps called this land America.
    Amerigo Vespucci
  49. _____ _____ _____, a Spaniard, was the first European to set foot on the land this is currently the continental United States, as he explored Florida in 1513 looking for the famous Fountain of Youth.
    Ponce de Leon
  50. _____ _____ _____ _____, a Spaniard, also sailed in 1513 and, after crossing land at the Isthmus of Panama, was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
    Vasco Nunez de Balboa
  51. _____ _____ ship (under the flag of Spain) was the first to sail around the globe in 1522.
    Ferdinand Magellan’s
  52. _____ _____, a Spaniard, conquered the _____ for their riches in Mexico in 1519.
    Hernan Cortes; Aztecs
  53. Although the Aztecs were strong, they and their king, _____, believed that Cortes was a part of and ancient prophecy, thus giving the Spaniards a great military advantage, as they were first welcomed as god.
  54. _____ _____, a Spaniard conquered the _____ in Peru and explored much of South America between 1531and 1533.
    Francisco Pizzaro; Incas
  55. In 1527, _____ _____ _____, a Spaniard, accompanied by a small expeditionary force (including _____, an African slave), was the first explorer to land in Texas.
    Cabeza de Vaca; Esteban
  56. In 1539, _____ _____ _____ explored much of what are now the southern states of the United States (Florida, Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, and Tennessee).
    Hernando De Soto
  57. _____ ______, a Spaniard, explored in 1540 much of what is now the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Kansas, also looking for the Seven Cities of Gold.
    Francisco Coronado
  58. _____ _____ _____, known as the last of the conquistadors, continued the search for cities of gold in the northern part of New Spain.
    Juan de Onate
  59. _____ _____ _____, who sailed for France in 1524, and _____ _____, a Frenchman, explored the upper New England coast and Canada for France in 1534.
    Giovania da Verrazano; Jacques Cartier
  60. _____ _____ _____ sailed along the Pacific coasts of North and South America, and, on completing his voyage in 1580, was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe.
    Sir Francis Drake
  61. _____ _____ _____ established the _____ _____ _____ (_____ _____ _____) in America in 1587 on _____ _____ in Virginia (named for the Queen Elizabeth, who was known as the Virgin Queen).
    Sir Walter Raleigh; first English colony (The Lost Colony); Roanoke Island
  62. By 1580, Spain had basically claimed as _____ _____ all of the land in what is now the southeastern, south central, and southwestern parts of the United States.
    New Spain
  63. _____ _____ _____ explored and claimed New Mexico and Spain in the late 1500s.
    Jose de Onate
  64. _____ _____ ______ was known as the Father of the Lower Rio Grande for his colonization of the area.
    Jose de Escandon
  65. In an effort to gain control over the seas, Spain sent a huge _____ of ships against England that was defeated by a combination of Queen Elizabeth’s navy and horrific weather in 1588.
  66. French explorer _____ _____ _____ founded Quebec City in 1603 and built a fort to secure the territory in Canada.
    Samuel de Champlain
  67. From 1756 to 1763, the British colonists in America faced the _____ _____ _____ _____, which resulted in France losing all of its land east of the Mississippi River (except New Orleans) to the British.
    French and Indian War
  68. _____ _____, and English explorer, further investigated the Hudson Bay and Hudson River areas in 1609.
    Henry Hudson
  69. _____ _____, _____ _____ _____ _____, a Frenchman, explored the entire length of the Mississippi River from its source to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682 and claimed the land and river for France.
    Rene-Robert Cavelier; Sieur de La Salle
  70. _____, named for King James I of England, was established in 1607 by merchants of the Virginia Company of London.
  71. The strong leadership of _____ _____ (whose life was saved by, _____, daughter of a Native American chief) kept the colony from collapsing.
    John Smith; Pocahontas
  72. In 1612, _____ _____ discovered a new type of tobacco that could be grown in Virginia. This was the first major cash crop of the New World.
    John Rolfe
  73. The need for workers led to the first Africans being brought to Virginia. Initially, they were treated as _____ _____ rather than slaves.
    Indentured workers
  74. Even though this was the _____ _____ _____ _____ in America, it is not as famous as Plymouth Colony because it did not open the doors to mass immigration from Europe.
    First permanent English settlement
  75. The desire for political and _____ _____ brought many colonists to the New World.
    Religious freedom
  76. In 1620 the _____, a small group of religious separatists led by _____ _____ came to America on a ship named the _____.
    Pilgrims; William Bradford; Mayflower
  77. Prior to coming ashore in the New World, the Pilgrims drafted an agreement, the _____ _____, committing the settlers of the _____ _____ in Massachusetts to self-government and majority rule.
    Mayflower Compact; Plymouth Colony
  78. The Mayflower Compact outlined the first form of _____ in America.
  79. After the first hard year had passed, the Pilgrims celebrated the first _____ with the Native Americans who had been friendly to them, the Wampanoag tribe.
  80. One American Indian who was of particular help to the Pilgrims was _____.
  81. In 1629, the _____, a larger group than the Pilgrims and who sought to purify the Church of England was led by _____ _____ to form a joint stock company they called the Massachusetts Bay Company.
    Puritans; John Winthrop
  82. A _____ _____ raised capital by the public sale of stocks in its company.
    Joint-stock company
  83. The Puritans carefully organized prior to their journey and settlement, which meant that the _____ _____ _____ never went through the Òstarving yearsÓ that earlier colonies had endured in their first years.
    Massachusetts Bay Colony
  84. _____ _____ founded a colony in Providence in 1636.
    Roger Williams
  85. _____ _____ founded Portsmouth in 1638.
    Anne Hutchinson
  86. Connecticut was founded by a Puritan, _____ _____ in 1636.
    Thomas Hooker
  87. ______, _____ _____ a Catholic, was granted the first proprietary colony for Maryland in 1632.
    Calvert, Lord Baltimore
  88. _____ _____ was given a land grant in what is now Pennsylvania to establish a colony for Quakers.
    William Penn
  89. _____ _____ _____ the most costly was in American history in terms of percentage of lives lost or destroyed on both sides.
    King Philip’s War
  90. One of the greatest Native American governmental organizations was the _____ _____.
    Iroquois Confederacy
  91. Five separate nations located in the upstate regions of New York joined together in an association known as a confederacy of league was formed sometime during the _____ _____.
    Pre-contact era
  92. The _____ _____ was also a confederacy that began in the pre-contact era.
    Muscogee Nation
  93. The _____ _____ _____ resulted in 20 executions, 19 by hanging and 1 who was crushed by rocks.
    Salem Witch Trials
  94. _____, the belief in the dignity and worth of each person, had a firm religious and political base in the British colonies.
  95. The _____ _____ _____ were divided into New England colonies, middle colonies, and southern colonies.
    13 original colonies
  96. The _____ _____ _____ of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut had poor soil and thus developed fishing, trading, whaling, and shipbuilding industries.
    New England Colonies
  97. The _____ _____ of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware grew large quantities of wheat and grain on family farms, established flour milling, and participated in some shipping and trading.
    Middle Colonies
  98. The _____ _____ of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia had a climate and soil that favored the development of large plantations on which tobacco, indigo, cotton, and rice were grown.
    Southern Colonies
  99. One of the earliest legislative bodies in the United States, the _____ _____ _____, was established in Virginia.
    House of Burgesses
Card Set
Social Studies Generalist - Part 3.txt
Social Studies Content TeXes Generalist - Part 3