American Epidemic Final

  1. 6 dimensions of wellness
    • Spiritual
    • Intellectual
    • Interpersonal
    • Environmental
    • Emotional
    • Physical
  2. 5 Principles of fitness
    • 1. Overload principle--greater than normal stress required
    • 2. Progression--increase should be gradual. Slow 4-6 weeks. Steady and gradual 18-20+ weeks
    • 3. Ten Percent Rule--stress should not be increased by more than 10% per week. Maintanence=no increase required.
    • 4. Specificity--exercise should be specific to the desired muscle area.
    • 5. Recuperation--rest is needed between exercise to allow muscles to recooperate.
  3. SMART goals
    • S specific
    • M measurable
    • A attainable
    • R realistic
    • T timely
  4. FITT principle
    • F frequency
    • I intensity
    • T time
    • T type
  5. Principle of reversability
    endurance lost faster than muscles. 10% muscles, 30-40% endurance in 8 weeks.
  6. aerobic vs. anaerobic
    • aerobic = energy--with oxygen, KREBS cycle
    • anaerobic = no energy--no oxygen, glycolysis
  7. macro vs. micro nutrients CHECK
    • macro--carbs, proteins, fats
    • micro--vitamins and minerals
  8. # calaries per pound
  9. Reccommended weekly weight loss
    1-2 pounds
  10. Body dysmorphic disorder
    leads to eating disorders CHECK
  11. Eating disorders
    • Anorexia--not eating, body wasting, death
    • Belemia--eating and purging, rapid weight loss, level out--look normal, teeth enamel problems from acid,
    • Bing eating--ton of food, purging
    • CHECK
  12. Types of fat
    • Essential fat--fat you need to survive
    • Storage fat--kept in storage
    • Visceral fat--around organs (worst kind)
    • Subcontanious fat--below skin
  13. 3 states of matter
    • solid--don't conform to container, fixed volume
    • liquid--conform to container, fixed volume
    • gas--conform to container, volume of container
    • CHECK
  14. 2 types of energy
    • Kinetic--in action
    • Potential--ready for action
  15. 4 forms of energy
    • Chemical--stored in chemical bonds
    • Mechanical--physical movement
    • Electrical--movement of charged particles
    • Radiant--travels in waves
  16. Oxydation and Reduction
    LEO (losing electrons is oxydation) the lion goes GER (gaining electrons is reduction)
  17. Types of bonds
    • Ionic--give away electron
    • Covalent--sharing electrons (polar--unequal sharing OR nonpolar--electrically balanced
    • Hydrogen bonds--attraction
  18. Protein chemical breakdown
    Image Upload 1 Made of amino acids. Same except for R group.
  19. saturated vs. unsaturated and trans fat
    • Saturated--animal meat solid at room temperature
    • Unsaturated--
    • Trans fat--modified bonds that make the
    • LOOK UP
  20. 3 types of junctions
    • tight--tight
    • desmozone--give and take
    • gap junction--opening, like door between hotel rooms
  21. Membrane transport simple vs. facilitated
    • simple--molecules pass through
    • facilitated--goes through protein chennel
  22. active transport
    going against a concentration gradient and requires energy
  23. Cellular respiration, 3 steps happen where?
    • Glycolysis--cytosol
    • KREBS cycle--mitocondrial matrix
    • Electron Transport Chain--intermembrane space
  24. Net gain of cellular respiration
    • Overall is 32.
    • 2 from Glycolysis, 2 from KREBS, 28 from oxydative phosphoralation
  25. up regulation vs. down regulation
    • up regulation--cells form more receptors for more hormones
    • down regulation--cells desensitize because of too much hormone for too long.
  26. 3 types of hormonal stimuli
    • Humoral--nutrients and ions release more hormones
    • Hormonal--hormones trigger more hormones
    • Neural--brain reacts an releases hormone
  27. Negative Feedback System
    When you have hormones that trigger action, the action triggers the stop of releasing that hormone.

    Glucose up, pancreas secretes insulin, moves glucose to cells, blood levels of glucose equalize.

    Glucose down, pancreas secretes glucagon, break up glycogen, sugar levels go up.
  28. 3 hormones that affect glucose (location)
    • epinephrine--adrenal medula
    • growth hormone--anterior petuitary
    • insulin--islet cells, beta (alpha = glucagon)
  29. Cushing's syndrom and Addison's syndrom
    (Addison's is opposite) Excessive amounts of cortisol excreted (often caused by a tumor on the gland) resulting in a loss of muscle and bone protein.

    • water and salt retention
    • hypertension
    • moon face
    • fat distributed to nape of neck
    • bruise easily
    • poor wound healing
    • buffalo hump
    • stretch marks--they look pregnant
  30. 3 Functions of insulin CHECK
    • 1. Move glucose into the muscle where it promotes glycolysis (break down of glucose that produces ATP and provides short burst of  energy)
    • 2. Move glucose into the liver where it can be converted into glycogen (stored until needed).
    • 3. Take glucose out of the blood and move it into the fat.
  31. Type 1 vs. Type 2
    • Type 1 is NO INSULIN. genetic. Usually early onset and the result of an immune disease.
    • Type 2 NUMB TO OR INSUFFICIENT INSULIN. based on lifestyle. usually older onset.
  32. Type 1 insulin types
  33. Type 2 treatment
    <250--30 day trial... if still not better than oral meds
  34. 5 oral meds for type 2 diabetes LOOK UP
  35. Retinopothy
  36. neuropathy
  37. glycosylation
  38. nephropathy
  39. reproduction problems with diabetes
  40. Diabetic ketoacidosis
  41. Physiological factors
    Image Upload 2
  42. Dehydration synthesis and Hydrolysis
    • Dehydration synthesis--binds, gives water
    • Hydrolysis--breaks, absorbs water
  43. sacharides
    • monosacaride--single sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose)
    • disacharide--two linked (moltose, lactose,)
    • polysacharide--multiple linked (fiber, celulose etc)
  44. 5 oral meds
    • Sulfanylureas--more insulin, less resistance. A1c down, FBS down, insulin up-----weight gain and hypoglycemia
    • Biguanides--more muscle uptake, less intestinal uptake. A1c down, FBS down, LDL and TRI down------diarrhea
    • a-glucosiadase inhibitors--inhibit breakdown of carbs so less glucose. A1c down, FBS down------ab pain, gas, diarrhea.
    • Thiazolidindiones--more insulin upake, less resistance. A1c down, FBS down,------weight gain, anemia, edema.
    • Meglitinides--more insulin. A1c down, FBS down.-------hypoglycemia
Card Set
American Epidemic Final
Diabetes and obesity