1. Know how to read a basic EKG
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    • P = firing of SA node/ depolarization of atria (.06-.12 sec) (PR interval = .12-.20)
    • QRS = depolarization of AV node of ventricles (.04-.12 sec)
    • T = repolarization of ventricles (QT interval = .31-.38)U = delayed ventricular repolarization OR hypokalemia
    • Times between these waves IMPORTANT!
    • R to R interval = pulse rate and should be equal
  2. What affects cardiac output?
    • ANS = affects HR
    • Preload = ventricular volume at end of diastole (SV)
    • --Starling’s Law: elasticity of heart will increase SV until it stretches so much that elasticity fails and SV will plummet.
    • Contractility = increases ventricular emptying
    • --Norepinephrine/ Epi by SNS (raises SV)
    • Afterload = peripheral resistance
    • --Affected by size of ventricle, wall tension & BP
    • Cardiac Reserve = ability to respond to demands
    • --HR of 180 bpm for short periods
    • --Raise in SV by increasing preload or contractility
  3. Blood Pressure Ranges
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  4. Cardiac function markers
    • C-reactive protein
    • Homocysteine: Both of these are markers for inflammation.
    • BNP: How much ventricles are stretching.
    • ANP: How much atriums are stretching.
    • --Both are markers for heart failure.
    • CK-MB/Myoglobin/Troponin: Muscle function markers.
Card Set
General Cardiovascular system