Organ Systems

  1. Kidney
    maintains homeostasis by regulating the volume, pressure, and consumption of the blood and urine
  2. Liver
    a large organ that functions mainly in the production of plasma proteins, the excretion of bile, the storage of energy reserves, the detoxification of poisons, and the interconversion of nutrients.
  3. Small Intestine
    the organ responsible forthe final digestion and absorption of nutrients
  4. Large Intestine
    helps absorb water, forms feces, and plays a role in defecation.
  5. Pancreas
    secretes digestive enzymes, bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid in chyme, and the hormones that regulate blood sugar.
  6. Gall Bladder
    stores, modifies, and then concentrates bile. Bile is released form the gallbladder into the small intestine.
  7. Skin
    major function is protection. (physical barrier that shields the contents of the body form invasion by foreign bacteria and other harmful particles)
  8. Capillary
    where the exchange of materials between the blood and the tissues occurs.
  9. Artery
    transports blood away from the heart toward the cells.
  10. Vein
    transports blood towards the heart.
  11. Brain
    receives sensory input and integrates, stores, and retrieves information.
  12. Lymph Nodes
    filters lymph. (contain macrophages and lymphocytes, cells that play an essential role in the body's defense system)
  13. Skeletal Muscle
    provides for conscious, voluntary control over contraction. It attaches to bones and forms the muscles of the body.
  14. Hypothalamus
    maintains a stable environment within the body by influencing blood pressure, heart rate, digestive activity, breathing rate, and many other vital processes.
  15. Cardiovascular
    a. Transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, and heat

    b. Transports immune cells and antibodies

    c. Transports hormones

    d. Regulates pH

    e. heart, capillary, artery, vein
  16. Lymphatic
    a. Returns tissue fluids to bloodstream

    b. Protects against infection and disease

    c. lymph nodes
  17. Endocrine
    a. Regulates and integrates body functions via hormones

    b. hypothalamus, pancreas
  18. Nervous
    a. Regulates and integrates body functions via neurons

    b. brain
  19. Skeletal
    a. Attachment for muscles

    b. Protects organs

    c. Stores calcium and phosphorous

    d. Produces blood cells

    e. bones, joints
  20. Integumentary
    a. Protects underlying tissues

    b. Provides skin sensation

    c. Helps regulate body temperature

    d. Synthesizes vitamin D

    e. skin
  21. Reproductive
    a. Produces and secretes hormones

    b. Produces and releases egg and sperm cells

    c. Houses embryo/ fetus (females only)

    d. penis, vagina etc
  22. Urinary
    a. Maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of nitrogenous waste

    b. Kidney (waste is filtered), gall bladder (where the urine collects), ureters (how the urine leaves the kidney), and urethra (exits the body via)
  23. Digestive
    a. Physical and chemical breakdown of food

    b. Absorbs, processes, stores food

    c. small intestine, large intestine
  24. Respiratory
    a. Exchanges respiratory gases with the environment

    b. lungs
  25. biological hierarchy
    Molecule <Organelle<Cell<Tissue<Organ<Organ System<Organism
  26. Homeostasis
    a. The ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite changes in the surroundings

    b. It is not a static state but a dynamic one

    • c. Receptor detects change in the internal or external environment and sends the information to the control
    • center

    d. Control center determines the level or range that is normal for the factor in question and selects an appropriate response

    e. Effector carries out the selected response
  27. Chapter 10 Liver
    when the digestive system absorbs excess sugar in the form of glucose, the liver takes some of the energy and converts it to glycogen. It can convert the glycogen back to glucose.
  28. Chapter 10 Pancreas
    releases insulin, which lowers the blood glucose levels. If it's too low it will release glycogen to increase the glucose level
  29. Chapter 10 Insulin
    stimulates the uptake of glucose by body cells. Works with glucagon
  30. Chapter 10 Glucagon
    stimulates the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose, increasing blood levels
  31. Chapter 10 Glucose
    the most common energy source

  32. Chapter 50 Passive Transportation
    • transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration)
    • with the aid of proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP.
  33. Chapter 50 Active Transportation
    diffusion across a plasma membrane in which the cell expends no energy. 
  34. Chapter 50 Diffusion
    the spontaneous movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  35. Chapter 50 Osmosis
    water moves from areas of high-water/low-solute concentration to areas of low-water/high-solute concentration
Card Set
Organ Systems
Quiz 1