Intro A&P Ch. 8/9- Nervous System/Senses

  1. Bundles of peripheral axons are called
  2. These cells form myelin sheaths on axons in the CNS
  3. Neurotransmitters such as acetycholine are involved in allowing the neural impule to cross the
    synaptic cleft
  4. This part of the nervous system regulates the body's involutary functions
    ANS - Anatomic Nervous System
  5. The "fight or flight" response is controlled by the _________ division of the autonomic nervous system
  6. Which fluid is found in the posterior cavity of the eye?
    Vitreous Humor
  7. The transparent body behind the pupil that helps focus light rays on the retina?
  8. The ___________ is the autitory ossicle that is in direct contact with the tympanic membrane
  9. What contents are in the CNS (Central Nervous System)?
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  10. What is the PNS and its contents?
    The peripheral nervous system and it contains all nerves other than the brain and spinal cords (cranial nerves, spinal nerves, somatic nerves, etc.)
  11. What are the involunary motor nerves of the peripheral nervous system?
    The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
  12. What are the voluntary motor nerves of the peripheral nervous system?
    Somatic Motor Nerves
  13. What two types of cells are found in the nervous system that are specialized connective tissue?
    Neurons (nerve cells) & Glia cells - neurons conduct impulses and glia cells support neurons
  14. What are the three main parts of a neuron?
    Dendrites, Axon, and Cell Body
  15. What is the function of a dendrite?
    conducts impulses to the cell body of a neuron - Carries in the information
  16. What is the function of an axon?
    Conducts impules away from the cell body of a neuron - Carries out the information
  17. Neurons are classified according to their direction in which they transmit impulses called_____?
    Sensory (afferent) neurons, Motor (efferent) neurons, and sometimes internuerons (central neurons)
  18. What do sensory neurons do?
    They conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain - called afferent neurons
  19. What do motor neurons do?
    They conduct impulses away from the brain and spinal cord - called efferent neurons
  20. What do interneurons do?
    They conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
  21. The axon is surrounded by a segmented wrapping of a material called ________?
    myelin  - a white fatty substance formed by Schwann cells
  22. What are glia cells?
    Also called neuroglia - they do not specialize in transmitting inpulses, they hold neurons together and protect them
  23. What are the three main glial cells of the CNS?
    astrocytes, microglia, & oligodendrocytes
  24. What is the function of an astrocyte?
    they are star shaped cells that protect the CNS and act as a blood brain barrior. They determine if a cell can get through. (drowsy vs. non-drowsy meds)
  25. What is the function of mictoglia?
    small cells that move in inflamed brain tissue carrying on phagocytes - immune system
  26. What two glial cells form myelin sheaths on axons and where?
    Oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS
  27. What are bundles of peripheral axons?
  28. What are the three types of nerve coverings?
    endoneurium, perinueurium, and epineurium
  29. Nerve impulses are conducted from ____________ to ___________?
    receptors to effectors
  30. Simplest kind of reflex arc?
    The two-neuron arc because it involves only sensory and motor neurons ( three-neuron arcs contain sensory, interneurons and motor)
  31. What is a nerve impulse?
    a self-propagating wave of electrical disturbances that travel along the surface of a neuron membrane
  32. In a nerve impules, a stimuli (such as pressure, temperature or chemical changes) are triggered. When triggered what rushes in through channels and causes it to do what?
    The Na+ rushes in from the outside, causing the inside of the membrane to be more postive rather than the outside - temporarily
  33. What is it called when Na+ gets into the membrane and what is it called when the potassium leaves?
    Depolarization and Repolarization
  34. If a membrane is covered in myelin when an nerve impulse occurs what happens?
    It speeds up the process by "skipping" over the myelin
  35. What is a synapse?
    Where chemical compounds are released from axon terminals.
  36. What are the three structures that make up a synaps?
    The synaptic knob, a synaptic cleft, and the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic neuron
  37. When a nerve impulse reaches the synaptic knob, what happens?
    the neurotransmitters (chemicals inside small sacs) are released from the vesicals into the synaptic cleft
  38. Name examples of neurotransmitters:
    acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, or serotonin
  39. What are the divisions of the brain/stem inferior to superior?
    spinal cord, medulla, cerebellum, pons, midbrain, diencephalon, and cerebrum
  40. the brainstem (medulla oblongota, pons,and midbrain) control voluntary or involuntary actions?
    involuntary such as heartbeat and respirations
  41. The two structures of the diencephalon?
    hypothalamus and the thalamus
  42. What are the function of the hypothalamus and the thalamus?
    • Hypothalamus controls mostly internal organs, appetite, endocrine system (involuntary)
    • Thalamus controls what impulses go to what part of the brain such as pain vs. pleasure
  43. Functions of the cerebellum?
    Contols our coordination, balance, and move smoothly. This is the second largest part of the brain
  44. Funtions of the cerebrum?
    Controls all mental process, sensations, voluntary movements, language, images, etc. This is the largest part of your brain
  45. Our spinal cord is covered in and outer white matter called?
  46. The spinal cord has two tracks, what are they called and what is there functions?
    • The¬† sensory tract conducts impulses TO the brain
    • The motor tracts conduct impulses AWAY from the brain
  47. What are the 3 menengies of the spine?
    Pia Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Duramater
  48. What is the autonomic nervous system?
    the motor nerves - all things that we dont have control over
  49. What is the difference between parasymathetic and sympathetic?
    • Sypathetic is fight or flight - where you have increased BP, heart rate, lowered digestion and lowered labeto
    • Parasympathtic is a more relaxed stage where you have pupil contriction and lowered BP
Card Set
Intro A&P Ch. 8/9- Nervous System/Senses
Nervous System & Senses