Baroque era (1600-1750)

  1. Baroque
    • From the Portuguese barroco, meaning irregularly shaped or misshapen pearl.
    • First used as a derogatory term in reference to the overly ornate art of the era
    • Now applied to art, architecture, and music of the 17th and the early 18th centuries.
  2. figured bass
    • a type of musical shorthand developed in the Baroque era
    • numbers are placed below the bass line to show harmonice progression.
    • performed or realized by the basso continuo.
    • provides the structure for guided improvisation.
  3. basso continuo
    • important element of Baroque performance practice
    • generally involves two performers: one playing the notated bass line, one realizing harmonies as indicated by the figured bass
    • harmonies usually played on harpsichord or organ
    • provides harmonic framework
  4. monody
    • literally "one song"
    • a new style which developed in the late 16th century
    • a single voal melody with simple instrumental accompaniment
    • allowed for greater expression of emotion and clarity of text
  5. the "Affections"
    • a Baroque philosophy inspired by ancient Greek and Roman writers and orators
    • refers to emotional states of the soul
    • in Baroque music. a single "affect" (one clear emotion) is usually projected through an entire composition or movement
    • also referred to as the "Doctrine of the Affections"
    • vocal music depicted the emotions of the text or dramatic situation
    • was a reaction against the complex polyphony of Renaissance music
  6. Binary form
    • two part form (AB)
    • sections A generally ends with an open cadence
    • frequently used in Baroque dances and keyboard pieces
  7. rounded binary form
    • two-part musical form: A ://: B + A://
    • material from Section A returns within Section B
  8. ternary form
    • three part form (ABA)
    • section B generally creates contrast in key and/or material
    • often used in Baroque arias
  9. terraced dynamics
    • Baroque practice of changing dynamics abruptly
    • results in start contrast rather than gradual change
  10. Le nuove musiche (1602)
    • an example of the monodic style
    • contents include madrigals and arias for solo voice and continuo
    • introductory remarks, in which the composer offers advice on how to add ornamentation to elaborate vocal lines
    • Italian for "The New Music"
    • title page dated 1601 but not actually published until 1602
    • publication by Florentine composer Giulio Caccini
    • contains musical examples and prose descriptions of monod, illustrating the newly emerging musical texture
    • Amarilli mia bella is one of the examples of solo songs that demonstrates the new "expressive style"
  11. Florentine Camerata
    • A group of intellectuals, poets, and musicians who worked under the patronage of Count Giovanni de'Bardi in Florence, Italy, have been credited with the creation of the first operas. Their objective was to recreate the dramatic style of the ancient Greeks. They introduced the monodic style of singing in which a single vocal line was used to deliver the text with clarity and expression.
    • met in Florence, Italy, in last decades of 16th century
    • members included: Giulio Caccini, singer and composer; Jacopo Peri, singer and composer: Vincenzo Galilei, (Composer, theorist, and father of Galileo Galilei); and Cound Giovanni de' Bardi, in whose Florentine home they met
    • discussed poetry, music, and the sciences
    • their desire to re-create ancient Greek drama led to the invention of opera
    • developed monody, a musical texture¬† that consisted of a vocal melody, unfolding over a bass line supported by a simple chordal accompaniment.
    • oldest surviving opera L'Euridice was performed in 1600
  12. Opera
    • italian for "work"
    • drama that is sung
    • combines vocal and instrumental music with drama (staging and acting), visual arts, (costumes and scenery) and often dance.
    • created in Italy around 1600 and remains one of the most popular forms of musical entertainment
    • components included recitative, arias, enselmbles, and choruses.
  13. stile rappresentativo
    • italian for "representational style"
    • the term used by the florentine Camerata musicians to describe the monodic style
    • a recitative-like melody moving freely over a foundation of simple chordt
    • the music was meant to heighten the emotional power of the text
  14. castrato
    • male soprano or alto voice
    • subjected to a surgical procedure before reaching puberty, which prevented the voice from changing
    • prominent in 17th and 18th century
    • generally used in heroic roles
  15. libretto
    • the text of an opera, oratorio or cantata
    • usually written by somone other than the composer
    • often based on a play, novel, or an episode in history.
  16. aria
    • lyrical song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
    • often highly emotional and sometimes performed independently
    • expresses the character's feelings and emotion
  17. recitative
    • a speech-like, declamatory style of singing
    • used for dialogue and to advance the plot
    • more lyrical than speech vut less lyrical than song
    • replaced by spoken dialogue in some styles of operas
  18. recitativo secco
    • Italian for "dry recitative"
    • a speech-like, declamatory style of singing
    • supported only by continuo
    • employed in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
  19. recitativo accompagnato
    • Italian for "accompanied recitative"
    • a speech-like, declamatory style of singing
    • supported by instrumental ensemble or orchestra
    • allows for greater connection with the text
    • employed in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
  20. chorus
    • adds musical variety to the operatic works of many composers
    • singers may be participants in the plot (group or crowd scenes) or may be set apart from the staging, serving to comment or reflect on the action much like a narrator
  21. opera seria
    • Italian for "serious opera"
    • sung throughout
    • generally based on historical or mythological subjects
    • ex: Monteverdi and The Coronation of Poppea
  22. stile concitato
    • Italian for "agitated style"
    • term used by Monteverdi
    • expresses the "hidden tremors of the soul"
    • achieved through use of tremolo and pizzicato (instrumental) and ornamentation and rapid repeated notes (vocal)
    • ex: Monteverdi and The Coronation of Poppea
  23. sinfonia
    • generic term, used in the Baroque in various contexts
    • for Monteverdi, indicates an instrumental movement
    • used for transitions between scenes in operas
    • ex: Monteverdi and The Coronation of Poppea
  24. ground bass
    • Baroque compositional device
    • consists of the continuous repetition of a short-melody over which free variations occur
    • often it provided the basic structure of a Baroque aria
    • ex: Monteverdi and The Coronation of Poppea
  25. cantata
    • a multi-movement choral work
    • sacred or secular
    • for soloists, chorus, and orchestra
    • consists of recitatives, arias, ensembles, and choruses
  26. chorale
    • a hymn tune, associated with German Protestantism
    • intended for congregational singing, therefore moved mostly by step by step or narrow leap
    • used as the basis for many genres including the cantata
    • sometimes adapted from Gregorian chants as well as from other popular sources
    • harmonized for four voices (SATB) by composers including J.S. Bach
  27. canon
    • from the Greek word for "law"
    • strict type of polyphonic composition in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody
    • canons in which each voice enters on the same pitch are referred to as rounds
  28. fugue
    • from the Latin word "fugere", to flee
    • a highly structured imitative contrapuntal composition
    • a single theme or subject prevails
  29. fugal texture
    • a contrapuntal composition based on the principle of imitation
    • a theme (referred to as subject) pervades the entire work, entering in one voice and then another
  30. ritornello
    • a recurring theme that functions as a refrain in Baroque composition
    • can serve as introduction and postlude in arias or choruses or as a unifying thread in concertos
  31. augmentation
    • a theme is presented in longer time values
    • often the melody becomes twice as slow as the original
    • often used in fugal writing
  32. arioso
    • a short vocal passge
    • more lyrical than a recitative but more modest in scale than an aria
  33. oboe da caccia
    • an alto oboe
    • built in the shape of a curved hunting horn but with a pear-shaped bell that gave the sound an outdoor quality
  34. oboe d'amore
    • a mezzo-soprano oboe
    • pitched lower than a regular oboe with a pear-shaped bell
  35. taille
    a tenor oboe with a pear-shaped bell
  36. concerto
    • a multi-movement orchestral work
    • usually in three movements (fast-slow-fast)
    • in the Baroque there were two types: solo concerto and concerto grosso
  37. concerto grosso
    • Baroque orchestral work
    • usually in three movements (fast-slow-fast)
    • a group of solo instruments is showcased
  38. concertino
    the small group of solo instruments features in a concerto grosso of the Baroque concerto
  39. ripieno
    • Italian for "full" or "complete"
    • also called tutti
    • a term used to denote the full orchestra in a Baroque concerto
  40. ritornello form
    • a structure often employed in the first and third movements of the Baroque concerto
    • the opening passge (ritornello) is restated throughout the movement
  41. ordre
    • French term identifying Baroque dance collections
    • often contained numerous miniature dance pieces
  42. double
    term used for a "variation" (of a theme) in French keyboard music of the Baroque era
  43. ornamentation
    • applied by the performer during repeats or da capo/dal segno section
    • ornaments could take the form of appoggiaturas, trills, mordents, etc.
  44. menuet
    • a popular dance of the Baroque (and Classical) eras
    • French origin
    • elegant dance in triple meter
    • moderate tempo
  45. hornpipe
    • lively dance in triple meter
    • English origin
    • originally associated with sailors
  46. clavier
    German word for any keyboard instrument other than the organ
  47. clavichord
    • a small rectangular keyboard instrument
    • sound is generated by small metal tangents that strike the strings inside the instrument
    • the application of vibrato to the key produced an expressive sound
  48. harpsichord
    • a keyboard instrument
    • sound is generated by small quills inside the instrument that pluck the strings
    • often had two manuals (sets of keys)
  49. clavecin
    French term for harpsichord
  50. gravicembalo
    Italian term for harpsichord
  51. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788)
    • an outstanding keyboard player, particularly on the harpsichord and clavichord
    • produced an enormous body of music, including keyboard sonatas, concertos, symphonies, cantatas, oratorios
    • contributed to the development of sonata form
    • author of the important treatise, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments (published 1753), that served as a practical guide to all aspects of keyboard performance including the correct execution of ornaments
Card Set
Baroque era (1600-1750)
Baroque era related terminology.