Nutrition FATS

  1. Three classes of lipids:
    • 1 fats or triglycerides
    • 2 phospholipids
    • 3 sterols 
  2. What is the largest class of lipids in foods and bodies:
    trigycerides/fats (95%)
  3. Lecithin is an example of what lipid?
  4. What are the functions of fats/triglycerides?
    • -energy source
    • -palatability
    • -satiety and satiation 
    • -nutrient source
    • -stored energy
    • -organ protections
    • -temp regulation
    • -insulation (myelinateion of nerves) 
  5. What nutrients come from fats/triglycerides?
    • -fat-soluable vitamins: A, D, E, and K
    • - essential fatty acids
    • -linoleic fatty acids
    • -linolenic fatty acids
  6. What are the functions of phospholipids?
    • -cell membrane structure
    • -emulsifier in fluids
    • -part of lipoprotiens that carry fat and cholesterol away from arteries
  7. What are the functions of sterols?
    • -critical components of complex regulatory compounds
    • -basic material to make bile, vitamin D, sex hormones and cells in brain and nerve tissue 
  8. What is the structure of tyiglycerides?
    • 3 fatty acids
    • 1 glycerol

    *all natural fats are mixtures of different types of fatty acids 
  9. What is the structure of a saturated FA?
    Has a hydrogen atom attached at each available space
  10. What is the structure of an unsaturated FA?
    have double bonds between C and fewer H atoms
  11. What are some sources of saturated fats?
    • animals
    • egg yolks
    • milk, butter and cheese
    • only plant source: tropical oils 
  12. What negative health effect is associated with saturated FA?
  13. What is the structure of a monosaturated FA?
    A carbon chain with one unsaturated double bond
  14. What are sources of monounsaturated FA?
    • olive oil
    • peanuts
    • avocado
    • canola oil 
  15. What is the structure of polyunsaturated FA?
    contains two or more double bonds on the carbon chain
  16. What are some sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
    • vegetable oils -corn safflower, wheat germ, canola, sesame and sunflower
    • fish
    • margarine 
  17. What is a linoleic acid?
    • Omega-6
    • vegetable oils, prepared foods, and animal foods 
  18. What is a linolenic acid?

    • fish (esp tuna, salmon, bluefish, halibut, sardines and rainbow trout)
    • walnuts
    • canola oil
    • flaxseeds

    decrease risk of heart disease by preventing coagulation or arterial plaques 
  19. What is the function of the essential fatty acids?  (linoleic and linolenic)
    • 1 skin integrity (strengthen cell membrane and prevent permeability---deficiency causes eczema and leisions)
    • 2  blood cholesterol regulation
    • 3  growth (brain development before and after birth)
    • 4  Regulate production of enzymes needed for sythesis of nonessential FA by liver
    • 5  Immune function - slows rate of infection
    • 6  Prevent inappropriate blood platelet aggregation
    • 7  Precursors of prostaglandins 
  20. What is a trans fat?
    artificially produced fats
  21. What is hydrogenation?
    A process that changes unsaturated oils into solid fats
  22. How are trans fats detrimental to health?
    • 1  development of CAD and DMII
    • 2  decrease HDL and increase LDL
    • 3  Disrupt essential FA functions 
  23. Where do we find trans fats?
    • bread
    • cookies
    • cakes
    • crackers
    • margarine
    • frozen potato  products
    • frying in fast food restaurants 
  24. What is lipogenesis?
    • anabolism of lipids
    • results in formation of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and prostaglandins 
  25. How is fat digested?
    • -begins in mouth with lipase
    • - little digestion occurs in stomach
    • - bile is release when fat reaches sm. intestine
    • - pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides into monoglycerides, fatty acids and glycerol 
  26. How is fat absorbed?
    • - digested lipids bind with bile to form micelles which are absorbed by microvilli
    • - inside mucosal cells, FA and monoglycerides are reassembled into triglycerides an dincorporated into chylomicrons (lipoproteins)
    • -chylomicrons are absorbed into the lymph system and taken into the circulatory system 
  27. What is the DRI of fats?
    • - less than 10% of cal from saturated fats
    • - 20-30% kcal from fats
    • - total fat intake: 40-97g
    • - total saturated fat intake: 20-25g 
  28. What are high sources of cholesterol?
    • egg yolks
    • organ meats 
  29. What is the role of lipoproteins in the body?
    transort lipid-based molecules that are water insoluble through water-based blood plasma
  30. What are LDLs and VLDLs?
    • carry fats and cholesterol to body celss
    • made of largest proportions of cholesterol 
  31. What are HDLs?
    • carry fats and cholesterol from body cells to the liver for excretion
    • made of large proportions of proteins 
  32. What is a desireable cholesterol profile look like?
    • total=  <200 mg/dL
    • LDL= <130 mg dL 
  33. What does a borderline-high cholesterol level look like?
    • total = 200-239 mg/dL
    • LDL= 130-159 mg/dL
  34. What does a high cholesterol profile look like?
    • Total = >= 240 mg/dL
    • LDL = >= 160 mg/dL
  35. What doe guidlines recommend for dietary cholesterol intake per day?
    less than 300mg

    *if LDL is elevated, than less than 200 mg 
  36. What affets blood cholesterol?
    • Cholesterol in food has little effect
    • total food fat, particularly saturated fats, affect LDL 
  37. The following are all examples of what?

    failure to thrive of infants
    malnutrition among older adults from fear of cholesterol 
    Extreme fat restrictions

    EFAs must be provided 
  38. How much saturated fat and cholesterol do the National Cholesterol Education Program recommend?
    • 7% or less SF
    • 200 mg dietary cholesterol 
  39. How does dietary fat relate to breast cancer?
    Adipose tissue is the primary source of estrogen after menopause. there is an increase risk of breast cancer with an increased intake of toal fat and saturated fat
  40. What is the association of colon cancer and dietary fat?
    significant amounts of red meats and colon cancer.

    stronger risk factor is consuming too many calories compared with energy expenditure 
  41. What is the associated between dietary fat and DMII and hypertension?
    • indirectly related to fat intake
    • both disorders are better managed when weight is healthy
    • dietary fat reduction helps better manage a healthy weight 
Card Set
Nutrition FATS
entire fat chapter