Equine Nursing and medicine

  1. Kingdom
  2. Phylum
  3. Class
  4. Order
  5. Family
  6. Genus
  7. Species
  8. Mare
    Female after 3rd Birthday
  9. Dam
    Mare that has given birth
  10. Stallion
    Intact male between 2&3 yrs old
  11. Sire
    Stallion that has fathered a foal
  12. Foal
    4-7 old, either gender
  13. Weanling
    Young horse, till first birthday
  14. Long yearling
    1-1/2 to second birthday
  15. How tall can a mini be?
    <8.2 hands
  16. How tall can a pony be
  17. How tall can a "light" horse be
  18. Draft
  19. Cold blooded
    Easy going temperment, Draft breeds
  20. Warm-blooded
    Inbetween temperment
  21. Hot-blooded
    Very spririted, most light breeds
  22. How tall is a mini mediterranean
    Up to 36" at the withers
  23. What is the scientific name for "ass"
    Equus asinus
  24. How tall is a standard donkey
    36.01"-48" Working donkey, also known as "burro"
  25. How tall can a large standard be
  26. How tall can the mammoth donkey be
    Greater than 54"
  27. What is a male donkey called
  28. What is a female donkey called
  29. what is  an informal term for a gelded donkey
  30. What is a donkey used to breed horse mares to produce mules called
    Mule jack
  31. Male donkey used to breed jennet mares to produce donkeys
    jennet jack
  32. What is the cross on a donkey
    Dorsal black strip from poll to tail
  33. How many chromosomes does a horse have
    32 pairs
  34. How many pairs of chromosomes does a donkey have
    31 pairs
  35. What is the most common term for a "mule"
    Horse mare bred to a donkey jack
  36. What is the most common term for a Hinny
    Jennet mare bred to a horse stallion
  37. What is a "mare Mule"
    female mule; aka molly mule
  38. When a horse has a chestnut coat what base color will you see?
    A slight yellow
  39. When a horse has a sorrel color, what base color will you see?
    A brown base color with a red tinge
  40. Where does the white color go to on a Tobiano
    Extends over the back
  41. Where does the white go on an overo
    White does not extend over the back
  42. Where would a white cornet marking be?
    right along the cornet band
  43. Where is a Pastern white marking?
    Extend up to the pastern but no farther
  44. Where is a sock?
    Does not extend past the hock
  45. Where is a stocking
    Extends past the hock up the leg
  46. Where do you put a microchip
    Halfway between the withers and poll about 1 1/2 inches below the breast of the neck. injected about 1 1/2 inches beneath the skin
  47. What muscle is the micro chip inserted into
    Nuchal ligament
  48. A dietary essential for one or more species of animals
  49. What are the nutritional needs
    Maintenance, growth, reproduction, production
  50. 4 Catagories of essential nutrients
    Energy: Charbohydrates, Lipids

    Protein: Building blocks of the body

    Minerals: Electrolytes

    Vitamins: Help bodily functions     
  51. What is the most important nutrient
  52. How many gallons can a horse drink per day
    1 gal of water for ever 100lbs
  53. How much water can a horse loose while exercising?
    10L per hr
  54. What is digestible energy used for in the body
    Locomotion, thermoregulation, and maintaining body condition
  55. If you give a horse "too much energy" in its food, what happens?
  56. If you dont give a horse "enough energy" in its food, what happens?
    Skinny horse
  57. What is the primary source of energy in animals diets?
    The break down of carbohydrates and lipids
  58. how is starch formed?
    large numbers of simple surgar molecules combine to for complex carbohydrates (starch, cellulose)
  59. What are major components of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers?
    Cellulose and hemicelluloses
  60. Waht is the baseline energy metabolism in herbivores?
    Cellulose in forages by gut microbes
  61. What are oil orgins
    Plant or marine animal orgin
  62. what are fat orgins
    Animal orgin
  63. Saturated fat
    Animal fat, no double bonds, solid at room temp
  64. Unsaturated fats
    Plant, one or more double bonds, can take up hydrogen, liquid at room temp
  65. the process of converting an unsaturated fatty acid to more saturated one by adding H
  66. Integral part of all cells in the body
    cell membrane
  67. what is muscle primarily composed of
    Protein and water
  68. What is bone composed of?
    Cartilaginous proteiin matrix that becomes mineralized with Ca and Ph
  69. Why are proteins so important?
    Important to your immune system, act as a messenger system
  70. What are proteins composed of
    Amino acids
  71. How many amino acids make up an animal protein?
  72. What are essential amino acids
    Has to be provided through feed
  73. What are nonessential amino acids
    Body can make them
  74. Example of an essential amino acid
    Lysine, valine
  75. Example of a Nonessential amino acid
    Glycine, serine, cystine
  76. What do all amino acids contain?
  77. How much nitrogen do amino acids contain
  78. What are the 2 types of minerals
    Macrominerals and microelements/trace elements
  79. What is an example of a Macro mineral
    Calcium, Phos, Sodium, Magnesium, sulfur
  80. What is an example of a microelement
    Zinc, Iron, Cobalt
  81. What disease can develop if there are not enough vitamins in the diet
    White muscle disease
  82. What vit is absent when "white muscle disease" develops?
    Vit E
  83. What do organic vit. contain
  84. What are the 2 groups of vit.
    Fat-soluble, water- soluble
  85. What are some examples of fat-soluble vit.?
    Vit, A, D, E, K
  86. What are some examples of Water soluble vit
    Thiamin, Biotin, folic acid
  87. What percentage of crude protein does Orchard grass hay have
  88. What % of crude protein does timothy hay have
  89. What are some examples of legume hay?
    Alfalfa, Clover
  90. What does legume hay have a symbiotic relationship witih?
    Bacteria in root nodules
  91. What can crude protein % be in legume hay?
    can be greater than 20%
  92. TDN
    Total digestible nutrients
  93. What can readily available carbohydrates cause
    Abnormal fermentation= build up of lactic acid in the gut= bacterial toxin release= laminitis
  94. Barley
    Lower in digestible energy, superior to corn in protein content and protein quality. Always soak first
  95. Oats
    Highest protein contest of the grains, low in energy content compard to other grains. High in fiber= feeling full so less likely to over eat
  96. What is the protein requirment for an adult horse
  97. How much hay does an adult horse consume
    1.5-1..75lbs of hay/ 100lbs
  98. What are the protein requirments for a light work
  99. What are the protein requirments for a moderate work
  100. What are the protein requirments for a heavy work
  101. What is the % of protein in a  milk based diet for a foal
  102. When weaning what is the protein % requirment
  103. When is creep feed offered to a foal?
    4 weeks old
  104. What ratio is very important for proper bone growth in a foal?
  105. What are the protein requirments for a young growing horse
  106. What causes OCD
    Too high protein diets
  107. OCD
    Osteochondrosis dessicans
  108. What can exsessive calcium cause
    predisposes them to angular limb deformities and epiphystitis
  109. Epiphystitis
    infl. of growth plate
  110. When does the 1st incisor erupt
    1 wk
  111. when does the 2nd incisor erupt
  112. when does the 3rd incisor erupt
    6-9 mo
  113. when does the 2nd re-molar erupt
  114. when does the 3rd PM erupt
  115. when does the 4th PM erupt
  116. when do the adult 1st incisors erupt
    2 1/2 yrs
  117. when do the adult 2nd incisors erupt
    3 1/2 yrs
  118. When do the 3rd adult incisors erupt
    4 1/2 yrs
  119. when do the adult canine teeth erupt
  120. when do the PM1 adult teeth erupt
    5-6months- 3yrs if present
  121. PM2 in an adult
    2 1/2 yrs
  122. PM3 in an adult
  123. PM4 in adult
  124. M1 in adult
  125. M2 in adult
  126. M3 in adult
    3 1/2-4yrs
  127. how many teeth does an adult male have
    40 or 42
  128. How many teeth does an adult female have
  129. How many deciduous teeth are there
    24. 12 incisors, 12 molars
  130. What is the PM1??
    Wolf tooth
  131. when does the cup for I1 disapear
  132. I2 cap disapear
  133. I3 cap disapears
Card Set
Equine Nursing and medicine