Chapter 4

  1. List 4 general principles of Microscopy
    • Magnification
    • wavelength and radiation
    • resolution
    • contrast
  2. List electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing resolving power
    • Radio and television waves
    • microwaves
    • infrared
    • visible light (400nm-700nm)
    • UV light
    • X rays
    • Gamma rays
  3. defne refracton
    bending of light
  4. describe resulting image of magnification through a convex lense
    inverted and reversed
  5. Define contrast
    • determining the specimen from the background
    • determines resolution
  6. what increases contrast? 2
    staining & light that is in phase
  7. List 6 different Light Microscopes
    • Bright-field simple and complex
    • dark-field
    • phase microscopes
    • fluorescent
    • confocal
  8. Simple Microscope. describe
    • 1 lense, similar to magnifyng glass.
    • Leeuwenhoeks
  9. List the 3 lenses of a compound microscope
    • ocular
    • objective
    • condenser
  10. function of Oil Imersion lens
    increases resolution by increasing numercal aperature (ability of lens to gather light)
  11. Function of Dark field microscope
    observing pale objects. increases contrast, increasing details
  12. List 2 kinds of phase microscopes
    • Phase-contrast: greater resolution of internal structures
    • Nomarski: produces a 3D effect
  13. List benefit of using phase microscopes
    • Used to examine living organsims
    • gives more contrast because light waves are out of phase
  14. Uses of Fluorescent Microscope
    • identify pathogens
    • make visible a varienty of protiens
    • UV light increases resolution and contrast
  15. How do you stain a specimen for a fluorescent microscope?
    attach fluorescent dye to the antibodies for the specimen
  16. describe what a confocal microscope does
    uses UV lasers to illuminate fluorescent chemicals on the stained specimen.  emitted light passes through a pin hole apperature.  Computer constructs 3D image from digitized images taken  plane at a time.
  17. What is the Magnification power of an electron Microscope
    10,000x to 100,000x
  18. Name two types of electrom Microscopes
    • TEM transmission electron microscope
    • SEM scanning electron microscope
  19. list differences between TEM and SEM
    • TEM produces a 2D image; observaton of internal
    • SEM produces a 3D mage observaon of the external surface
  20. Name magnificaton power of probe microscopy
    more than 100,000,000x
  21. Name the two probe microscopes and their purpose
    • Scanning tunneling microscopes: uses electron flow: must be electronically conductive
    • atomic force microscopes: uses a laster;can observe living organism
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Chapter 4
chapter 4