KIN100 Test 2

  1. About how many US deaths are from cardiovascular disease?
    • 51%
    • 50% of those who suffer from CV disease don't know they have it 
  2. What some major risk factors for CVD?
    • Tobacco, high blood pressure (hypertension), unhealthy blood cholesterol levels (hyperlipidemia), physical inactivity, overweight/obesity, diabetes, uncontrolled stress
    • metabolic syndrome, heredity and ethnicity 
  3. Metabolic syndrome
    High triglycerides low HDL, obesity
  4. What are the borderline levels of hyperlipidemia (high blood fats)
    • 200-239
    • higher = bad, lower = good 
  5. How does smoking increase the chance of CVD?
    • damages lining of arteries
    • reduces HDL, raises LDL and triglycerides
    • increases blood pressure and heart rate
    • carbon monoxide displaces oxygen in blood, reducing available oxygen in body
    • causes platelets to stick together in blood stream (clotting)
    • speeds development of fatty deposits in the arteries      
  6. Atherosclerosis
    • Buildup of plaque on interor lining of blood vessels
    • causes arteries to become clogged and narrowed
    • can contribute to high blood pressure
  7. Primary conditions leading to coronary heart disease?
    • Clogged arteries (artherosclerotic build up)
    • Blood cells
    • Vessell spasms  
  8. throbolism v embolism?
    • thrombolism stays there
    • embolism piece of debris that breaks off 
  9. cholesterol
    • fatty, waxy substance found in bloodstream
    • liver manufactures
    • necessary diet component
    • not found in great quantities in most foods
    • responsible for plaque deposits in atherosclerosis (clogged arteries)    
  10. Cholesterol ratio
    • Total cholesterol divided by HDL
    • 5 is standard, 6 substantial, 10 is twice the normal risk
    • less than 3.5 is good  
  11. hypertension
    • high blood pressure (blood presses too hard against artery walls, causing damage that attracts cholesterol)
    • disease as well as a risk factor for cardiorespiratory diseases 
  12. Risk factors associated w/ high blood pressure (hypertension)
    • age, ethnicity (afro-american), family history
    • birth control pill, pregnancy, smoking, emotional stress, obesity 
  13. what are borderline high triglyceride levels?
    • 150-199
    • 500 or more very high 
  14. coronary heart disease
    arteries, which supply the heart with blood, are particulary supceptible to plaque buildup, or coronary heart disease
  15. ischemic stroke
    • blood clot that blocks an artery
    • account for 87% of all strokes
    • often caused by atherosclerosis or certain types of arrhythmia  
  16. hemorrhagic stroke
    • caused by a ruptured blood vessel
    • may occur if there is a weak spot in an artery wall or following a head injury 
  17. stroke
    • caused when blood supply to the brain is cut off
    • once brain cells begin dying, about 2 million cells are lost every minute that blood flow is not restored
  18. signs/symptoms of stroke
    • numbness or weakness of face, arm or leg on one side of body
    • sudden confusion, trouble speaking/understanding
    • sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
    • sudden trouble walking, dizziness or loss of balance
    • sudden severe headache with no known cause (beware of tias)    
  19. Four steps to stroke testing (informal)
    • STRS
    • Smile
    • Talk and Speak a simple sentence
    • Raise both arms
    • S Stick out her/his toungue   
  20. Transient Ischemic Attack v. Ischemic Strokes
    Transient Inschemic usually goes away on its own, ischemic strokes, the blood supply is shut off (thrombus, embolism)
  21. What are the key hazardous substances in cig smoke?
    • Nicotine (stimulant, causes body to release adrenaline)
    • Tar
    • Carbon monoxide
    • Cancer-causing substances (about 43 known carcinogens)   
  22. Mainstream v. sidestream tobacco smoke?
    • Mainstream - exhaled smoke
    • Side stream - comes off burning end of cigarette
  23. Effects of Environmental Tobacco smoke
    • Lungs
    • heart disease
    • pregnancy (2x risk of miscarriage, increased risk of SIDS)  
  24. About how much shorter is the life expectancy of a smoker v. non-smoker?
    10-15 years shorter than nonsmoker
  25. COPD
    emphysema, asthma, bronchitis
  26. How many US kids have chronic health conditions such as asthma or obesity?
  27. When does a heart attack occur?
    When one or more of the arteries supplying your heart with oxygen-rich blood (coronary arteries) become blocked
  28. How does alcohol work?
    • moves from outer surface of the brain towards the inner core
    • you can die from an acute overdose of boose - roughly .35+ BAC 
  29. .05% BAC
    • release of inhibition, self restraint, poor judgement
    • .30 is virtual loss of consciousness, blackout
  30. .10% BAC
    • Loss of coordination, staggering, slurring, impaired vision
    • MO's BAC for driving is .08 
  31. .20 BAC
    • dulled sensory perception, loss of emotional control
    • .08 is MO's BAC for driving
    • .30 is blackout drunk - .35 can be coma, possible lethal  
  32. Binge drinking
    • 5 or more drinks for men, 4 for women
    • 44% of college students binge drink
    • 23% college students are frequent bingers  
  33. Major causes of death in US?
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Stroke  
  34. is heart disease preventable?
    • yes, though some genetic factors to be considered
    • nation's #1 killer of women and men (cancer is climbing) 
  35. What percentage of American adults are not physically active on a regular basis?
    • 70 percent
    • 24 percent are sedentary 
  36. The goal of healthy people 2020 is that 30% of the 6 year old to adult population will engage in regular, light to moderate exercise for 30 minutes daily. How many meet those guidelines now?
    • 22%
    • 54% are somewhat active but do not meet guidelines
    • 24% completely sedentary  
  37. How many American adults are overweight or obese?
    • 65%
    • 17.6% of American children are overweight or obese 
  38. What percentage of people who start exercising will drop out within three to six months of starting?
    • 50 percent
    • Drop out indicators: self motivation (score out of 24), body composition (men, 19%, women 25%) 
  39. Stages of adherence
    • precontemplation
    • contemplation
    • preparation
    • action
    • maintenance
    • determination    
  40. precontemplation
    no plan to change
  41. contemplation
    • can take 6 months
    • assessing, evaluating, planning 
  42. preparation
    • considering strengths, weaknesses
    • knowing barriers and determining strategies to overcome barriers 
  43. action
    start through first 30 days
  44. Maintenance
    • 6+months
    • constant monitoring
    • periodic rewards
    • activity variation   
  45. determination phase
    after six months, you become positively addicted
  46. what is a negative addiction to exercise?
    exercise becomes obsessive, resulting in overuse syndrome
  47. creeping obesity
    gradual accumulation of fat over a period of time
  48. somatotypes (type of body build)
    • endomorph (tendency towards overweight)
    • mesomorph (muscular build)
    • ectomorph (tendency towards slim)  
  49. appestat
    • center in hypothalamus
    • it tries to maintain your current body weight - takes about 20 minutes 
  50. Set Point Theory
    • your body will try to maintain its current weight
    • takes about 20 minutes to kick in and say full 
  51. recommendations for calorie burning per workout?
    • women 300-350
    • men 350-400 
  52. android type
    • apple shaped
    • abdominal region
    • greater health risk  
  53. gynoid type
    • pear shape
    • hips and thighs
    • lesser health risk  
  54. Metabolically Healthy Obese
    • Not all obese peeps are created equal
    • This is healthier
    • low visceral fat
    • high insulin sensitivity  
    • high HDL
    • low triglycerides  
    • still has high BMI, high fat mass 
  55. At Risk Obese
    • high visceral fat
    • low insulin sensitivity
    • low HDL
    • high triglycerides   
  56. 3 predictors of childhood obesity
    • watching tv (more than 2-3 hours nightly)
    • playing video games
    • soft drink consumption  (more than 3 daily)
  57. adiposity rebound
    • 5-7 years is when you start to gain again
    • the earlier you start to rebound, the more likely you are to be obese as adolescents and adults 
  58. childhood obesity and type II diabetes
    since 1997, a 200% increase in obese kids hospitalized with type 2 diabetes
  59. BMI Index
    • 25 or greater overweight
    • 30 or greater obese 
  60. Norm for BMI
    18.5 - 24.9
  61. How much essential fat do men and women have (20-39 years)?
    • Men 2-4%
    • Women 10-12% 
  62. Acceptable body comp ratings for men and women?
    • women, 25-31% body fat
    • men, 18-25% body fat 
  63. Basal metabolic rate
    • 60-70% of calories expended
    • just keeping your body functioning 
  64. hyperplastic or early onset obesity
    • excess number of fat cells early in life
    • critical time first years of life 
  65. hypertrophic obesity
    • fat cell size increases 3-5 times normal
    • more typical and easier to treat than hyperplasia 
  66. minimal daily calorie requirements
    • 1000-1200 for women
    • 1200-1400 for men 
  67. Stress
    • anything that interferes with the biological or psychological equilibrium
    • the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it 
  68. eustress
    • pleasant and stimulating
    • just enough to make you perform 
  69. distress
    unpleasant and harmful
  70. parasymphatetic division of the autonomic nervous system
    • in control when relaxed
    • aids in digesting food, storing energy, promoting growth 
  71. sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system
    activated during times of arousal, including exercise and in case of emergency (sever pain, anger, fear)
  72. sympathetic nerves use norepinephrine to do what?
    • prep organs, sweat glands, blood vessels and muscles for handling of emergency
    • in general, commands your body to stop storing energy and to use it in response to a crisis 
  73. how does body react to stress?
    • sympathetic nerves cause release of key hormones, including cortisol and epinephrine
    • heart and respiration rates accelerate
    • hearing and vision more accute
    • liver releases extra sugar to bood energy
    • perspiration increases
    • brain releases endorphins     
  74. endocrine system responses
    • pituitary gland
    • triggered by sympathetic nervous system, helps control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers to influence body processes such as metabolism 
  75. pituitary gland
    • stimulates the adrenal gland to produce both adrenalin and cortisol
    • part of endocrine system 
  76. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    • Also called stress response
    • Alarm stage (stressor perceived)
    • Resistance stage (stressors detected, body attempts to adapt to and combat)
    • Exhaustion stage (resistance inadequate, stress illness occurs)   
  77. Characteristics of the alarm phase in GAS
    • increased metal alertness, energy consumption
    • mobilization of energy reserves (carbs and fats)
    • circulation changes (increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, less to skin, kidneys and digestive organs)
    • drastic reduction in digestive process and urine production
    • increased sweat gland secretion
    • increased blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate     
  78. Resistance Phase
    • if stress lasts longer than few hours
    • dominant hormones are glucocoritcoids
    • energy demands stay high
    • glycogen reserves nearly exhausted   
  79. During the resistance phase
    • if coping skills reduce or eliminate stress, homeostasis is restored
    • if coping skills prove inadequate, homeostasis is not restored and stress continues towards exhaustion 
  80. Exhaustion
    • failure of one or more organ systems will prove fatal
    • mineral imbalance 
  81. Cattell's research re: stress
    high correlation between poor physical condition and high anxiety
  82. state anxiety
    • situational - high dive, test
    • physical activity benefits w/in 5 minutes and last 2 hours or more regardless of exercise duration
    • reduction of situational stress exists regardless of intesity of physical activity  
  83. trait anxiety
    • personality driven
    • physical activity can help, but it takes 10 weeks to see a meaningful reduction 
    • aerobic and resistance exercise best 
Card Set
KIN100 Test 2
KIN 100 Test 2