Took the first known photograph: View from the Window at Le GrasWorked with Louis Daguerre to develop advanced photographic processes which would lead to the development of the Daguerreotype
An early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide. The term calotype comes from the Greek for 'good impression'.
One of the first photographic processes.
Developed by Louis Daguerre and Joseph Niepce.
The daguerreotype plate consists of a copper plate with a thin coating of silver rolled in contact that has previously been sensitised to light with iodine vapour so as to form silver iodide crystals on the silver surface of the plate.
A photographic style pioneered by Julia Margaret Cameron which creates a soft haze on an image.
Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence in the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.
The first Impressionist show was at Nadar's photo studio.
Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Primarily in France
Paul Cezanne, Vincent Van Gogh, Georges Seurat, Paul Gaugin
More symbolic and abstract than impressionism
consisted of two main branches
1: an interest in developing emotional personal content using line and color. Van Gogh, Gauguin
2: an interest in depicting form that emphasizes stability. Cezanne, Seurat
Braque leads this style
Picasso Leads this style
founded 1916 in Zurich Switzerland by Hugo Ball (poet)
name was chosen randomly out of a dictionary
French slang for "hobby-horse"
Berlin, Paris, New York
United in a set of principles
1. objected to the materialism of western culture
2. opposed WW1
3. rejected all of arts conventions
The term found art—more commonly found object or readymade—describes art created from the undisguised, but often modified, use of objects that are not normally considered art, often because they already have a non-art function. Marcel Duchamp was the originator of this in the early 20th century.
Founded by André Breton who wrote "Surrealist Manifesto"heavily influenced by Freud and Psychoanalysis
used free association
invented by Freud in 1919
A set of theories intended to understand the mind
Automatic Writing and Drawing
writing or drawing without conscious thought
emerged as the leader of Surrealism
wrote "Surrealist Manifesto"
Russian movement that attempted to show pure feeling in art
lead by Kazimir Malevich
believed pure "feeling" can only be expressed without reference to the material world
found purity in geometry
Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917
Principal member was the painter Piet Mondrian
Proponents of De Stijl sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white.
movement that had no geographical center, but was mostly in Germany, that began in 1905
influenced by the idea that everything is in a state of flux
was intended as a call for cultural renewal
believed that a new art was needed to redirect the world
consisted of 2 main groups : die Bruck and Der Blaue ReiterInfluenced by the scientific advances made by Albert Einstiein, Charles Darwin, and Ernest Rutherford, and the philosophies of Friedrich Nietzsche
First group of German Expressionists
Started in Dresden
Led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
As a group they wanted their work to be a bridge to higher man.
"man is a rope, tied between beast and higher man" - Fredrich Nietzsche - Thus Spake Zarathustra
19th-century German philosopher and classical philologist. He wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, using a distinctive style and displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism.
Was a primary influence on the Die Bruke German Expressionist movement
Der Blaue Reiter:
The Blue Rider
Second group of German Expressionists
Founded by Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) and Franz Marc (1880-1916)
Published "Concerning the Spiritual In Art" and "The Blue Rider Almanac"
Painter and Architect
believed the basic physical and psychological needs of man were sun, space, and vegetation
designed "Machines for Living"
Reaction against modernist movement-
Looks at american rural life
led by Grant Wood (1891-1942) and Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975)
First American Avante Garde movement
mid 1940's to 1956
declined after Pollocks death
also known as the New York School
2 types: Action Painting, and Color Field Painting
Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow
German Expressionism : De Bruke
Fauvist color pallette
German Expressionism : Der Blaue Reiter
In the Black Square
German Expressionism : Der Blaue Reiter
The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley