Physio test 1

  1. closed loop
    output of a system is feed back to the beginning regulating the whole system
  2. Bernard, Claude
    regulation of an “internal environment” of the body within a relatively narrow range
  3. cybernetics
    science of control and communication in animals and machines
  4. delay
    may be short or long depending on anatomy, time
  5. emergence
    property of a system can't be predicted fromĀ  simple sum of its parts
  6. gain
    action that describes the intensity or magnitude of activity of the effector.
  7. regulatory cascade
    use a sequence of many steps to reach a final condition rapidly
  8. nonlinear ("chaotic") systems
    dynamic systems where small changes initially lead to drastic changes downstream
  9. phase space diagram
    all possible states of a system are represented, generally in a position vs. momentum graph
  10. reflex
    smallest unit of regulatory function
  11. astrocytes
    accesory cells which contact capillaries and other neurons
  12. axon
    long, often unbranched, part of a neuron that transmits signals
  13. axon terminals
    membrane bound vesicles which can transmit chemical messengers
  14. dorsal root ganglion
    contains cell bodies of pseudounipolar cells; no information processed here
  15. interneuron
    specialized neurons which can integrate mutliple inputs, generate ryhtmic patterns
  16. nerve net
    primative arrangement of neurons with little special organization and little specialization
  17. reticular formation
    a primitive network that runs through the brain stem. It helps with cardiovascular reflexes, alerting the cerebral cortex, and respiratory organization, just to name a few functions. It is made of primitive neurons.
  18. substantia nigra
    neurons with melanin. They form loop connections between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. They are involved with muscle tone.
  19. blood-brain barriers
    protective barrier that prohibits charged, hyrdophillic molecules from entering the brains fluid
  20. hypothalamus
    organization or participation in homeostatic regulation of many aspects of the internal environment of the body
  21. thalamus
    synapses that relay many types of functions to the cerebral cortex
  22. medulla (oblongata)
    reticular formation centers that regulate respiration, cardiovascular and some aspects of somatic motor function, as well as preganglionic parasympathetic neurons
  23. postganglionic cells
    autonomic neuron that has its cell body in the ganglion and sends its axon to the target tissue
  24. preganglionic cells
    autonomic neuron that origintes in the central nervous system and terminates in an autonomic ganglion
  25. behavioral state regulation
    the regulation of behavioral states such as sleeping, waking, and alerting; controlled by the hypothalamis
  26. synaptic vesicles
    vesicles that are released from the presynaptic cleft that bind to a receptor on the post synaptic cleft propgating a signal
  27. midbrain
    coordination of reflexes for tracking visual objects; auditory relay synapses; motor nuclei and tracts
  28. sympathetic division of the ANS
    division of autonomic nervous system that is responsible for fight or flight response
  29. alpha (a) receptors
    receptors that respond to NE
  30. beta (b) receptors
    receptors that respond to Epi best, but can respond to NE
  31. cephalization
    nervous tissue becomes concentrated towards one end of the organism (head)
  32. presynaptic
    usually an end of an axon which transmist the signal thorugh the synapse
  33. postsynaptic
    area which had special receptor proteins that receive a chemical signal
  34. allostatic regulation
    homeostatic mechanism is found to alter its set point in response to changing conditions, such as stress
  35. Which of the following types of regulation are homeostatic?

    C. neg feed
  36. Which of the following characteristics or features are typically found in the cell bodies of mature
    A. "dark" nucleus with much "condensed" DNA & protein
    B. large numbers of darkly staining vesicles
    C. elaborately developed Golgi complex
    D. many mitochondria
    E. mitotic spindles
    F. long microtubules
    G. extensive granular, or rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
  37. Which of the following structures are considered part of the brain stem in this course and for
    functional purposes?
    A. cerebellum
    B. cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
    C. diencephalon
    D. medulla (oblongata)
    E. midbrain
    F. pons
    C D E F
  38. ventral horn (gray matter)
    • region of the spinal cord where
    • synapses provide the final integration of motor activity for somatic motor function
  39. ganglion
    • a cluster / concentration of neuron cells bodies outside the CNS (peripheral); may control
    • various functions [except "basal ganglia" of cerebral hemispheres]
Card Set
Physio test 1
physio flash cards 1