Microbiology ch 14

  1. What is Pathology?
    The study of disease
  2. What is Etiology?
    The study of the cause of a disease
  3. What is pathogenesis?
    The development of disease
  4. What is Infection?
    Colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. What is a Disease?
    An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally. 
  6. What is transient microbiota?
    it can be present for days, weeks or months

    -can be washed off 
  7. What is normal microbiota?
    Bacteria on the body that permanently colonizze the host.
  8. What is Symbiosis?
    The relationship between normal microbiota and the host.
  9. Symbiosis:

    What is Commensalism? 
    When one organism benefits and the other is unaffected 
  10. Symbiosis:

    What is mutualism? 
    When both organisms benefit
  11. Symbiosis:

    What is Parasitism? 
    When one organism benefits at the expense of the other.
  12. Symbiosis:

    Opportunistic pathogens 
    Some normal microbiota are opportunistic pathogens
  13. What is microbial antagonism?
    A competition between microbes. 
  14. How does normal microbiota protect the host?
    • it protects the host by:
    • -occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
    • -producing acids
    • -producing bateriocins
  15. What are probiotics?
    They are live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect 
  16. What are Koch's Postulates?
    • 1-The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
    • 2-The pathogen must be isolated from the disease's host and grown in pure culture.
    • 3-The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal.
    • 4-The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the orginal pathogen.  
  17. What is the purpose of Koch's postulates?
    • Koch's postulates are used to prove the causse of an infectious disease.
    • -some pathogens can cause several disease conditions
    • -some pathogens cause disease only in humans  
  18. What is a symptom?
    A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of a disease. 
  19. What is a sign?
    A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of the disease?
  20. What is a Syndrome?
    A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease. 
  21. What is a communicable disease?
    A disease that is spread from one host to another.
  22. What is a contagious disease?
    A disease that is easily spread from one host to another
  23. What is a noncommunicable disease?
    A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another. 
  24. What is an incidence? 
    Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time.
  25. What is prevalence?
    Fraction of a population havig a specific disease at a given time. 
  26. What is a sporadic disease?
    Disease that occuurs occasionally in a population.
  27. What is an endemic disease?
    Disease constantly present in a population
  28. What is a Epidemic disease?
    Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.
  29. Pandemic disease
    Worldwide epidemic
  30. Herd immunity
    immunity in most of a population
  31. What is an acute disease?
    Symptoms develop rapidly
  32. Chronic disease
    Disease develops slowly
  33. Subacute disease
    Symptoms between acute and chronic
  34. Latent disease
    Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive 
  35. Local infection
    Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
  36. Systemic infection
    An infection throughout the body
  37. Focal infection
    Systemic infection that began as a local infection
  38. Sepsis
    Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection. 
  39. Bacteremia
    Bacteria in the blood
  40. Septicemia
    Growth of bacteria in the blood 
  41. Toxemia
    Toxins in the blood
  42. Viremia
    Viruses in the blood
  43. Primary infection
    Acute infection that cuases the initial illness
  44. Secondary infection
    Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
  45. Subclinical disease
    No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection) 
  46. What are Predisposing factors?
    • -make body more susceptible to disease
    • *Short urethra in females
    • *Inherited traits, such as the sickle cell gene
    • *Climate and weather
    • *Age
    • *Fatigue
    • *Lifestyle
    • *Chemotherapy 
  47. What are Reservoirs of infection
    • Continual sources of infection
    • -Human: AIDs, gonorrhea
    •      -Carriers may have inapparent infections or latent diseases

    • -Animal: Rabies, Lyme disease
    •    -some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans
    • -Nonliving: Botulism, tetanus
    •    -soil 
  48. Transmission of Disease


    Direct: Requires close association between infected and susceptible host
  49. Indirect contact
    Spread by fomites
  50. Droplet       ....transmission of disease   (contact)

    Transmission via airborne droplets
  51. Vehicle Transmission
    Transmission by an inanimate reservoir  

    (food, water, air)  
  52. Vectors
    • Arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes
    • -transmit diease by 2 general methods:
    •      1-mechanical transmission
    •      2-Biological transmission 
  53. Mechanical transmission
    Arthropod carries pathogen on feet
  54. Biological transmission
    Pathogen reproduces in vector
  55. Nosocomial Infections
    • -Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay
    • -Affect 5-15% of all hospital patients 
  56. Common causes of nosocomial infection. Most common is 
    Coagulase-negative staphylococci
  57. Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Diseases that are new, increasing in incidence, or showing a potential to increase in the near future. 
  58. Who mapped the occurrence of cholera in London?
    John Snow
  59. Descriptive   (epidemiology)
    Collection and analysis of a data 

    -John Snow 
  60. Analytical   (epidemiology)
    Comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group

    -Florence Nightingale 
  61. Experimental  (epidemiology)
    Controlled experiments

    -Ignaz Semmelweis 
  62. Case reporting
    Health care workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices
  63. Nationally notifiable disease
    Physicians are required to report occurence
  64. The CDC

    Incidence of a specific notifiable disease
  65. Mortality
    Deaths from notifiable diseases
  66. Morbidity Rate
    Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period
  67. Mortality rate
    Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time 
  68. What are contributing factors of emerging infectious diseases?
    • -Genetic recombination
    •       *E.coli, avian influenza  (H5N1)

    • -Evolution of new strains
    • -Inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides
    •    *antibiotic-resistant strains
    • -Change in weather patterns
    •    *hantavirus 
  69. Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Contributing factors 
    • -Modern transportation
    •        *West Nile virus
    • -Ecological disaster, war, and expanding human settlement
    •    *coccidiodomycocis
    • -Animal control measures
    •     *lyme disease
    • -Public health Failure
    •    *diphtheria 
  70. Epidemiology
    The study of where and when diseases occur. 
  71. CDC
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Collects and analyzes epidemiological information in the United States 
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Microbiology ch 14
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