aerobic met and hormones

  1. Where does Glycolysis occur:
    -takes place in cytoplasm

  2. Composition of Pyruvate:
    3 carbon molecules
  3. Pyruvate gets either broken down to _________ or to remake _______
    • produce more ATP
    • glucose 
  4. What needs to be available to break down pyruvate?
  5. When pyruvate is broken down what is released?
    • CO2
    • high energy electrons
    • acetyl-CoA 
  6. What happens in the citric acid cycle?
    Acetyl CoA enters the cycle where more CO2 and high energy electrons are released
  7. What is the final step of aerobic metabolism?
    -the energy in the high energy electrons previously released is transferred to ATP and the electrons are combined with oxygen and hydrogen to form water
  8. Bottom line:  what are the end products of aerobic metabolism?
    • ATP
    • H2O
    • CO2 
  9. What is glycogen?
    CHO energy stroed in liver and muscles
  10. Amount of glycogen stored in adult  muscles?  In the liver?
    • 150 g
    • 90 g 
  11. What is glycogenesis?
    process of convertin glucose to glycogen
  12. How can one increase glycogen levels?
    • -physical training
    • -dietary manipulations (although limited energy source) 
  13. Is the conversionof glucose to fat reversible?
  14. Where does cho digestion occur?
    Begins in the mouth and ends in the small intesting
  15. What do intestinal enzymes and pancreatic amylase do?
    complete the conversion of carbs to monosaccharides
  16. What is Lactase?
    the enzyme that breaks down lactose
  17. What is sucrase?
    the enzyme that breaks down sucrose
  18. what is maltase?
    the enzyme that breaks down maltose
  19. What is the primary aspect (goal) of carb metabolism?
    maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis (70-100 mg/dL -fasting)
  20. What are two blood glucose sources?
    • CHO
    • non- CHO (glycogen) 
  21. What is glycogenolysis:
    process of converting glycogen stored in the liver and muscle back to glucose
  22. What is Gluconeogenesis?
    process of producing glucose from fat and protein.
  23. What is the result of gluconeogenesis that can result in an acid-base imbalance
    formation of ketones
  24. Where does insulin come from?
    beta cells in pancreas
  25. What are the functions of insulin? (there are 6)
    • 1.  eases glucose into body cells
    • 2.  enhances glycogenesis
    • 3.  stimulates lipogenesis
    • 4.  inhibits breakdown of fat and protein
    • 5.  Promotes amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle (increasing protein synthesis)
    • 6.  Influences glucose oxidation 
  26. Glucagon
    • pancreas:  alpha cells
    • raises blood glucose by:
    •     stimulates conversion of liver glycogen to glucose
    •     stimulates breakdown of lipids for energy
  27. Somatostatin
    • released from pancreas and hypothalamus
    • inhibits glucose and glucagon 
  28. Epinephrine
    • STRESS
    • raises blood glucose by:
    •    enhancing the conversion of liver glycogen to glucose
  29. Glucocorticoids:
    • promote gluconeogenesis
    • inhibits insulin 
  30. Thyroid hormone:
    • increases insulin breakdown
    • increases glucose absorption
    • causes release of epinephrine 
  31. What is the glycemic index?
    • Measure of the effect of a carb containing food on blood glucose level
    • Ranking of how much the food raises glucose levels 
  32. What does 100 represent in regard to glycemic index?
    The highest value possible; food raises blood glucose level the most
  33. What does a number less than 50 represent with regard to glycemic index?
    a low value --  the lower glycemic index the better
  34. What are factors that affect glycemic index?
    • 1.  physical form such as apple juice as compared with whole apple
    • 2.  fat and protein content in addition to carbs, which slows digestion
    • 3.  ripeness such as in fruites and vegetables, which increases glycemic index
    • 4. Fiber content, slows digestion
    • 5. Botanic variety of a food 
Card Set
aerobic met and hormones
digestion hormones, aerobic metabolism, glycemic index