1. Sociolinguistic Variation
    • age
    • gender
    • socio-economic class
    • ethnic affiliation  
  2. age
    • slang- not really a linguistic term: used to talk about informal language
    • evanescent: comes into appearance and the recedes.
    • “pwnd”
    • tends not to result in permanent change to the language
    • some youth slang becomes more permanent ex-“cool”
  3. gender
    • men and women use language different
    • cultural construct
    • “flowery” adjectives in English- gorgeous, beautiful: used more often by females
    • Japanese: Ø I- watashi (unmarked)Ø I- boku (male)Ø I- atashi (female)
    • Koasati: had such different gender dialects that it was thought there was two different languages
  4. socio-economic class
    • Labov’s /r/ study
    • in NY people pronounced r differently
    • Saying the phrase:  Fourth Floor (the r’s would be there sometimes and dropped other times)
    • post-vocalic r:  end of the work or after a vowel
    • Visited different Stores:  Saks 5th Avenue, Macy’s, S. Kleino   “r” was pronounced at Saks (high class)
    •   Macy’s has the most variation in the middle class 
    • Middle class shows the changes in language
  5. ethnic affiliation
    •  It is about affiliation and the historical study. 
    • It is not absolute.
    • Most important now in a 2012 context in America
    • Fixin’ to ~finna
    • LabovØ He be playin’ basketball ~ He playin’ basketball
    • Probably will continue to be the most significant organizing parameter of sociolectal variation for the next several years along with socio-Economic class and political ideology
  6. synchronic
    at a single time
  7. diachronic
    • Across time
    • Diachronic does not mean historical
  8. Historical linguistics is important
    language is always changing and there are so many things that only become obvious because we are studying the changes
  9. How does language get new words?
    • productivity
    • coinage
    • acronyms/initializations
    • clipping
    • blending
    • borrowing
    • functional shift
    • derivation
    • compounding
    • semantic shift        
  10. Productivity
    • new words all the time
    • lexicon is changing and accpeted but not usually accepting of grammatical changes 
  11. coinage
    • (ex nihilo)do words really come out of nothing? No
    • Kleenex
    • Q-tip 
  12. Acronym
    • is actually pronounced as a word by putting the sounds together
    • Scuba
  13. Initializations
    • say the first letters
    • FDA
  14. Clipping
    • cut off the words and use part
    • us- usual
    • fab-fabulous  
  15. Blending
    • putting two parts of words together
    • Blo-No 
    • spork
  16. Functional Shift/ Conversion
    • using one part of speech as another part of speech without any morphological trappings (without doing anything)
    • ex- xerox (I can use the xerox machine.  Go xerox this for me.)
  17. Borrowing
    • loan words: use words from another language and in turn are borrowing some of the culture                                          ex- food is a great example: taco
    • some langauges are less accpeting-German
    • calquing: borrowing parts of words
    • ex-German Wolkenkratzer: Came from our skyscraper
  18. Derivation
    • morphemes that created new words 
    • verb can be made into a noun by adding a derivational ending
    • ex-  pave --> pavement
  19. Compounding
    • two words making one
    • butter + fly = butterfly
  20. Semantic Shift
    • words take on new meanings over time: repurposing
    • ex- web spiders bed/internet 
Card Set
2nd Test