the study of dialects
Differences that occur across geographic space
social dialects are growing and expanding
intersect with culture
a different way of speaking based on the group they think they belong to
African American English
: more people speak this now than ever before
traditional notion of “dialect”
Accent vs Dialect
: about pronunciation-not a linguistic term-a part of dialecto
dialect: more pervasive-differences in pronunciation-differences in lexicon and grammar
Started in Europe
1925 started in the U.S.
interstates represent older migration patterns and the dialect divisions follow them.
Why are there so many dialects on the east side and as you move west the dialect areas are so much greater?
east are new arrivals and defined by where they come from.
As they move west they intermingle and mix and take on aspects of each other’s dialects.
Dialect Variation: Geographical
: pop (Northern IL) ~ soda (Mid and Southern IL)·
Phonology: caught ~ cot are said differently in the North·
Grammar: standing on line ~ standing in line
a line that divides ONE linguistic feature form another·
ex- paper bag north of the line and paper sack south of the line
a bundle of isoglosses
found many differences and drew many lines that are “basically” in the same area
less geographically distinct as time is passing
not interested in what people really say but what people think they say
rate on who uses the most correct English
Northern states believe they speak correctly (Michigan feels they speak the most correct)
In the south they believe Northern states speak correctly because they’ve been taught they don’t speak right.
Dennis Preston is a researcher
When asking people to fill these maps out you are learning ideology not linguistic
Northern Cities Vowel Shift
a person who participates in the northern cities vowel shift is more likely to have a liberal political philosophy