Exam 3: Head Handout Part 5

  1. Each paranasal sinus is continuous with what?
    nasal cavity
  2. Each paranasal sinus is continuous with the nasal cavity through what?
    an aperture that opens into a meatus of nasal cavity
  3. Infection can spread from the nasal cavities to the paranasal sinus producing what?
    inflammation and swelling of mucosa of sinuses and local pain
  4. When several sinuses are inflamed, swelling of the mucosa result in what?
    blockage of one or more openings of the sinuses into the nasal cavities
  5. The superior alveolar nerves are branches of what?
    maxillary nerve (CN V2)
  6. What do the superior alveolar nerves supply?
    both the maxillary teeth and the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus
  7. Inflammation of the mucosa of the sinus is frequently accompanied by what?
    sensation of toothache (esp. when bone is very thin in inferior part of wall of this sinus)
  8. Why are patients w/ fractures of the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, or nasal bones warned not to blow their noses?
    because of possibility  of expelling air from paranasal sinuses or nasal cavities into the subcutaneous tissues, cranium, or orbit
  9. Where is the external acoustic meatus directed?
    somewhat anteriorly as well as medially
  10. Where do foreign bodies inserted in the meatus by infants and children usually become lodged?
    in the isthmus in the bony part, where its cartilaginous and bony parts meet
  11. With a hard blow on the chin what might happen concerning the condylar process of the mandible and the external acoustic meatus?
    may drive head of mandible into meatus and injure or fracture it
  12. Perforation of the tympanic membrane is one of several causes of:
    middle ear deafness
  13. How might perforation of the tympanic membrane occur?
    • foreign bodies
    • excessive pressure
    • infection  
  14. Severe bleeding or escape of CSF through a ruptured tympanic membrane and the external acoustic meatus may result from what?
    severe blow on the head
  15. Severe bleeding/escape of CSF through ruptured tympanic membrane/external acoustic meatus is indicative of a skull fracture and results from:
    the close relation of the tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, mastoid cells, and the bony external acoustic meatus to the meninges of the brain
  16. Sometimes a sull fracture passes through the bony part of the external acousti meatus and causes what?
    bleeding or loss of CSF through external acoustic meatus, een with an intact tympanic membrane
  17. How would a doctor allow pus to escape from the middle ear?
    incise the tympanic membrane
  18. Which half of the tympanic membrane is more vascular than the other?
    superior half
  19. Where are incisions made in the tympanic membrane?
  20. Why are incisions of the tympanic membrane made posteroinferiorly?
    • less vascularized
    • avoids chorda tympani N and auditory ossicles 
  21. Otosclerosis:
    • new formation of spongy bone around stapes and fenestra vestibuli
    • progressively increasing deafness 
  22. The bony overygrowth with otosclerosis may stop movement of what?
    base of stapes or membrane of fenestra cochlea
  23. How can hearing be restored with otosclerosis?
    stapes and membrane of fenestra must be freed
  24. Where might inflammatory conditions in the tympanic cavity/middle ear spread through?
    thin tegmen tympani
  25. What happens if inflammatory conditions in the tympanic cavity/middle ear spread through the thin tegmen tympani
    causes inflammation of meninges and brain
  26. In infants and children, what may allow direct spread of infection from the tympanic cavity to the meninges of the brain?
    unossified petrosquamous fissure
  27. What may allow infection to spread from tympanic cavity to dural venous sinuses?
    veins passing through the petrosquamous suture to the superio petrosal sinus
  28. Where are the causes of earache?
    • some in the ear and other at a distance
    • otitis externa 
  29. Otitis externa:
    inflammation of external acoustic meatus
  30. Why does movement of the tragus result in increased pain?
    because cartilage in it is continuous with that in the external acoustic meatus
  31. Earache may be referred pain from what?
    distant lesions (the mouth through mandibular N or pharynx/larynx through vagus N)
  32. Why might patients refer to temporomandibular joint disease  as ear pain or an earache?
    because of proximity of this articulation to the tragus of the ear
  33. Are mastoid processes or mastoid cells present at birth?
  34. As the mastoid processes develop, mastoid cells invade them from where?
    mastoid antrum
  35. By two years of age, what have the mastoid cells done?
    bulged the temporal bones laterally and inferiorly, forming small mastoid processes
  36. Infections of mastoid antrum and mastoid cells result from infection in the:
    middle ear
  37. Infections may spread superiorly toward the middle cranial fossa through what in young children?
    petrosquamous fissure
  38. Infections cause osteomyelitis of what?
    tegmen tympani
  39. What is osteomyelitis?
    bone infection
  40. Why is mastoiditis uncommon now?
    advent of antibiotics
  41. During operatios for mastoiditis, surgeons have to be conscious of which nerve?
    facial nerve
  42. What is one access to the tympanic cavity?
    through the mastoid antrum
  43. Hydrops of internal ear (Meniere's disease [syndrome])
    abnormal increase in amount of endolymph
  44. What does the excess fluid in the ear produce?
    • vertigo (dizziness)
    • accompanied in later stages by tinnitus or noises in the ear and deafness 
  45. What are the pathological changes resulting from dilation of the endolymphatic system?
    degeneration of hair cells in maculae of the vestibule and in the spiral organ
Card Set
Exam 3: Head Handout Part 5
review of head handout for exam 3