Exam 3: Head Handout Part 3

  1. Although veins and venous sinuses may be torn, most bleeding is usually from what?
    torn arteries
  2. Becaused the internal periosteum is firmly attached to calvaria, when bleeding occurs what happens?
    there is a slow, localized accumulation of blood forming an extradural hematoma
  3. What happens as the hematoma increases in size?
    compression of brain occurs
  4. When a hematoma comprsses the brain it necessitates what?
    evacuation of fluid and occlusion of bleeding vessels
  5. The formation of an extradural hematoma, superior to the tentorium cerebelli causes a rise in what?
    supratentorial pressure
  6. What happens if supratentorial pressure rises very high?
    part of cerebellum may be forced through foramen magnum, compressing medulla
  7. Fatal effects owing to interference with respiratory and cardiovascular centers may be caused by what?
    part of cerebellum passing through foramen magnum because of supratentorial pressure
  8. subdural (intradural) hemorrhage:
    bleeding within the dura following blow to head that jerks brain inside the skull
  9. Subdural hemorrhage is greastest in whom?
    elderly people in whom some shrinkage of the brain has occured
  10. Subdural hemorrhage commonly results from tearing which vein as it enters the superio sagittal sinus?
    superir cerebral vein
  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage:
    • bleeding into subarachnoid space following rupture of aneurysm or intracranial artery
    • also associated ith skull fractures and cerebral lacerations 
  12. What do subarachnoid hemorrhages look like?
     thin-walled outpouchings or evaginations
  13. Where do subarachnoid hemorrhages occur?
    at bifurcations of arteries at base of brain
  14. What is the result of subarachnoid hemorrhages?
    • meningeal irritation
    • severe hadache
    • stiff neck
    • loss of consciousness   
  15. Intracerebral hemorrhage:
    bleeding into brain from one of branches of middle cerebral artery
  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage is common in persons with what?
  17. Why does paralysis occur with intracerebral hemorrhage?
    because of interruption of motor pathways from motor cortex to brain stem and spinal cord
  18. What color is the bulbar conjunctiva?
  19. When would the bulbar conjuntiva not be colorless?
    when vessels are dilated and congested (bloodshot eyes)
  20. What causes hyperemia of conjunctiva?
    local irritations and infections
  21. Subconjunctival hemorrhages are common and manifested by:
    bright or dark red patches deep to and in the bulbarconjunctiva
  22. Subcnjunctival hemorrhages are a result from what?
    injury or inflammation
  23. Conjunctivitis:
    conjunctiva inflamed owing to infection
  24. What happens in third nerve palsy?
    upper eyelid droops (ptosis) and cannot be voluntarily raised
  25. Third nerve palsy is a result of what?
    damage to superior division of oculomotor nerve (CN III)
  26. What does CN III supply?
    levator palpebrae superioris muscle
  27. What happens to the eyelids when the facial nerve is damaged?
    eyelids can't be closed owing to paralysis of the orbicularis oculi muscles which closes the eyelids
  28. What does irritation of the unprotected eyeball result in?
    excessive lacrimation (tear formation)
  29. What does obstruction of the lacrimal drainage apparatus cause when lower eyelid is lax and everted?
    excessive tearing
  30. What causes glands inthe eyelid to become inflamed and swollen?
    infection or obstruction of ducts
  31. What happens if ducts of the ciliary glands become obstructed or inflamed?
    painful red swelling known as a 'sty' develops on eyelid
  32. What are cysts of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid called?
  33. What does an obstruction of the tarsal gland produce?
    inflammation called tarsal chalazion
  34. What happens with tarsal chalazion?
    protrudes toward eyeball and rubs against it as eyelids blink
  35. Which are more painful? Chalazia or sties?
  36. Where does the pigment epithelium of the retina develop from?
    outer layer of optic cup
  37. What is the outer layer of the optic cup?
    derivative of embryonic optic vesicle
  38. Where does the neural layer of the retina develop?
    from inner layer of optic cup
  39. When do the 2 layers of the retina fuse?
    during early fetal period
  40. What are the 2 layers of the retina suparated by?
    poential intraretinal space
  41. The pigment layer becomes fixed to what?
  42. Is the neural layer attached firmly?
  43. What may cause detachment of the retina?
    blow to the eye
  44. What is affected in third (cranial) nerve palsy?
    • levator palpebrae superioris muscle
    • upper eyelid can't be raised voluntarily 
  45. What happens if the cervical sympathetic trunk is interrupted?
    • superior tarsal muscle is paralyzed
    • causing drooping of eyelid (ptosis) 
  46. What is ptosis a sign of?
    cervical sympathetic trunk injury and is part of Horner's syndrome
  47. Paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles owing to injury of nerves supplying them results in what?
  48. What is diplopia?
    double vision
  49. Limitation of eye movement in the field of action of the paralyzed muscle and production of two images when an attempt is made to use the paralyzed muscle notes what?
    paralysis of a muscle of the eyeball
  50. What happens when the abducent nerve (CN VI) is paralyzed?
    • patient is unabel to abduct the eye on the affected side
    • usually double vision (diplopia) 
  51. The patient is asked to look superolaterally (upward and outward) to test which muscle?
    superior rectus
  52. The patient is asked to look inferolaterally (downward and outward) to test which muscle?
    inferior rectus
  53. The patient is asked to look superomedially (upward and inward) to test which muscle?
    inferior oblique
  54. The patient is aked to look inferomedially (downward and inward) to test which muscle?
    superior oblique
  55. The patient is asked to look medially (inward) to test which muscle?
    medial rectus
  56. The patient is asked to look laterally (outward) to test which muscle?
    lateral rectus
Card Set
Exam 3: Head Handout Part 3
review of head handout for exam 3