MANA 3335 Final

  1. Office Space Video
    • Peter has no motivation to
    • do his work. Only motivation he has is to do it so 8 of his bosses don't bitch
    • at him
  2. Blue Coat Systems Video
    CEO almost fired an employee because he wasn't motivated
  3. 3 steps of Motivation (in order)
    Initiation -> Direction -> Persistence
  4. Factors of Effort and Performance
    • Job Performance - How well person does job
    • Motivation - effort put forth
    • Ability - Cabable / competant for that job
    • Situational Constratints - external factors that affect performance  
  5. Job Performance Formula
    Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints
  6. Needs
    Physical or psych. requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well being
  7. Learned needs theory
    Need for: 

    • 1) Achievement - need to accomplish something significant / make a difference
    • 2) Affiliation  - Need to affiliate with other people / be part of a group or team
    • 3) Power - Need to have control over what you do
  8. 3 learned needs theory factors can vary because.....
    culture and one need can be more important to a person than another
  9. Maslow's Needs Hierarchy  (5)
    1)  Physiological  (food, water, survival) 

    2)  Safety / Security (need to not be in threat)

    3)  Belongingness (need to be around people/group to feel like they belong)

    4)  Self Esteem (need to feel good about yourself to accomplish something)

    5)  Self Actualization (need to fulfill your capabilities to accomplish something)
  10. Areas in management that influence Maslow's physiological needs:
    • Fair Salary 
    • Comfortable working conditions
  11. Areas in management that influence Maslow's Safety / Security needs:
    • safe working conditions 
    • job security
    • fringe benefits (insurance, EAP, 401k, etc.)
  12. Areas in management that influence Maslow's belongingness needs:
    • - permit social interation (allow people to be part of a group)
    • - keep groups stable
    • - encourage cooperation
  13. Areas in management that influence Maslow's self-esteem needs:
    • - recognize / publicize good performance 
    • - significant job activities
    • - respectful job title
    • - responsibility
  14. Areas in management that influence Maslow's Self-Actualization needs:
    • - Challenges in the job
    • - Provide advancement opportunities
    • - Permit Creativity
    • - Encourage high achievement
  15. Extrinsic Reward
    Tangible, visible to others and contingent on performance  (ie: if you do good work, you get higher pay, an award, a better parking spot)
  16. Intrinsic Rewards
    Natural rewards associated with performing the task for its own sake (if doing an activity because it's rewarding to you ex: crossword puzzle in the newspaper.  The reward is feeling accomplished and smart)
  17. Extrinsic Reward Bases (4 types)
    1)  Pay Based

    2)  Membership / Senority based  (senority doesn't have to mean a good job

    3)  Competency based - have the skills?  company will go to lengths to hire that person  

    • 4)  Performance based
    •         - Piece rate
    •         - Gainsharing
    •         - Profit Sharing / Stock Options
  18. Shell VIDEO
    Competency based  /  Extrinsic

    - Paid engineers extra to work in Alaska due to the cost and demand of oil increasing significantly
  19. Piece Rate definition
    Being paid for each thing you do
  20. Gainsharing definition
    Companies sharing financial value of performance gains with its workers
  21. Intrinsic Rewards  (4 qualities)
    1)  sense of accomplishment

    2)  feeling of responsibility

    3)  Chance to learn something new

    4)  The fun that comes from performing an interesting, challenging and engaging task
  22. Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards VIDEO
    Exrinsic rewards being dog park, discounts. 

    Intrinsic rewards being the salesman being honest with customers to feel accomplished.
  23. Equality theory (definition)
    Theory that states people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly
  24. O= 
    • O= Outcome
    • P=  Person
    • I= Inputs
    • RP=  Reference person
  25. OP / IP = ORP / IRP
    Outcomes for a person over the inputs from that person is equal to the outcomes for a reference person over the inputs from that reference person   (EQUITY)
  26. OP/IP < ORP/IRP
    INEQUITY - ask for a pay raise, quit, etc.  People in this scenario are more motivated to make a change.
  27. OP/IP > ORP/IRP
    This is inequity.  To balance it, motivate the reference person to ask for a pay raise, etc.
  28. Key Points in asking for a raise:  (8)
    1)  Do your homework (reasonable pay for level)

    2)  Think "timing" (don't ask if your boss is having a bad day.   DO ask before company's fiscal year so they can budget.)

    3)  Communication compatibility  (communicate in the best way that person prefers.  ie:  email or in person)

    4)  Keep it career-focused

    5)  Quantify your accomplishments

    6)  Rehearse

    7)  Know what you want and state it

    8)  Follow up (if boss says 2 weeks, follow up in 2 weeks)
  29. Expectancy Theory of Motivation
    1)  people will be motivated to the extent at which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance

    2)  that good performance will be rewarded

    3)  That they will be offered attractive rewards.
  30. Valence
    The attractiveness or desirability of a reward or outcome
  31. Expectancy
    The perceived relationship between effort and performance
  32. Distributive Justice
    The perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed
  33. Procedural Justice
    The perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions
  34. Motivation
    The set of forces that

    • 1) initiates
    • 2) directs
    • 3) makes people persist in their efforts

    -> to accomplish a goal
  35. Instrumentality 
    The perceived relationship between performance and rewards
  36. Reinforcement Theory
    A theory that states that behavior is a function of it's consequences.

    - behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently

    - behaviors followed by negative consequences or not followed by positive consequences will occur less frequently
  37. Reinforcement
    The process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior
  38. Reinforcement contingencies
    Cause and effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences
  39. Schedule of reinforcement
    Rules that specify

    • - which behaviors will be reinforced
    • - which consequences will follow
    • - the schedule the consequences will be delivered

  40. Positive Reinforcement
    Reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences
  41. Negative reinforcement
    reinforcement that strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a specific behavior
  42. Punishment
    Reinforcement that weakens behavior by foloowing behaviors with undesirable consequences
  43. Extinction
    reinforcement in which a positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weakening the behavior
  44. Continuous reinforcement schedules
    A consequence follows every instance of behavior.
  45. Intermittent reinforcement schedules
    Consequences are delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred. 
  46. Fixed ration reinforcement schedule
    An intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors
  47. variable ratio reinforcement schedules
    consequences are delivered following a number of behaviors.   Sometimes more and sometimes less.  bonus at 7 sales or bonus at 13 sales, but the average is generaelly consistent (avg. 10)
  48. Goal specifity
    The extent which goals are detailed, exact an unambiguous
  49. Goal difficulty 
    the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish (ie: goal of a 3.5 GPA vs. a 2.0)
  50. Goal acceptance
    extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals  (I really want to meet this goal b/c ____)
  51. Performance feedback 
    info about the quality or quantity of past performance that indicates whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal.  
  52. Management Attitudes and Behaviors required for recognition programs:   (6)
    • Sincerity
    • Fairness
    • Appropriateness
    • Consistency
    • Timeliness
    • Importance 
  53. Factors in the Effective use of Punishment (5)
    Clarifying the reasons - what and why punishment is.

    Timing - ASAP after incident

    Intensity - big deal, big punishment and vise versa

    Scheduling - each time event occurs, should be punished for all (nobody sould get away with it / fairness) 

    Impersonal - punish behavior / not person 
  54. Guidelines for Constructive Criticism  (8)
    1)  Always begin w/ a positive

    2)  Never follow with "but" or "however"

    3)  State problem WITH example, state negative effects

    4)  Try not to say "you"(this can make the person feel attacked) 

    5)  Ask for feedback 

    6)  Actively listen 

    7)  Mutually agree on next step 

    8)  End with a positive

  55. Sources of Power
    Formal heirarchial position
Card Set
MANA 3335 Final
MANA 3335 Final