CARDS Trials flashcards.txt

    no statistical difference in mortality between rate and rhythm control, however, increased mortality in rhythm control in older pts, those with CAD, those without CHF; 2002
  2. RACE II
    Lenient ( resting <110) vs. strict (resting < 80 ) HR control in pts with AFib - lenient rate control was as effective as strict and required fewer office visits; 2010
  3. RE-LY
    In pts with Afib, Both doses of Dabigatran are non-inferior to warfarin in preventing stroke and systemic embolism with lower major bleeding profile; slight increase in GI bleeding; 2009
    Aggrenox BID is more effective for secondary prevention of stroke in pts with ischemic stroke/TIAs; 1996, 2006
    Warfarin > ASA > placebo in reducing stroke events in AFib. For high risk patients with Afib, Warfarin INR 2-3 is more effective than low intensity warfarin (INR 1.2-1.5) dosing plus ASA 325 (1.9% vs. 7.9% stroke rates respectively). For low risk patients, ASA 325 has acceptable low risk of stroke < 3%. Sub-study of SPAF III established high risk factors of the CHADS2 risk score; 1991, 1994, 1996
    apixaban was superior to warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism, caused less bleeding, and resulted in lower mortality.; 2011
    use of plavix in pts with ACS, DES placed, on PPI who have risk of GI bleeding related to NSAID use or positive for H. pylori - When used with plavix, PPI reduces rate of GI outcomes without change in cardiovascular events. Weak recommendation in pts without risk of GI bleed; Important to note that the study didnot have adequate power, didnot include patients with high risk bleeding; 2010
    Used universal definition of MI. In pts with moderate-severe unstable angina, NSTEMI, and STEMI, Prasugrel (loading 60 then 10 daily) reduced CV death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke compared to clopidogrel (loading 300 then 75 daily) at 1, 6, and 15 months; additionally, there's reduced stent thrombosis in prasugrel group. Similar bleeding profiles; 2007 - 19% reduction in CV death, MI or stroke compared with clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI for ACS.
  9. PLATO
    Pts with ACS, with or without ST elevation, ticagrelor reduces death from vascular, MI, and CVAs; slight increase non-procedural related, i.e. fatal intracranial bleeding, but fewer other types of fatal bleeding; 2009
  10. GUSTO-I
    In pts with acute MI, Accelerated t-PA plus IV Heparin has lower mortality although higher bleeding than streptokinase and standard therapy. Older age, Anterior MI, increased Killip class lower systolic BP ( < 110) and increased HR (> 90) predictive of 4 time more higher 30 day mortality ; also, lower TIMI flow grade in infarct artery, renal dysfunction, arrhythmias are factors; 1995
  11. CAPRIE
    In pts with CAD, plavix was slightly better than aspirin in reducing primary endpoints of MI, CVA, and vascular death; conferred benefit for CVA and PAD; no benefit in pts with previous MI; 1996
  12. CAST
    flecanide and encanide increased mortality (relative risk 2.5) in pts with post-MI asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias; 1989
  13. ISIS II
    ASA lowers CV death, Recurrent MI, CVA when given to patients with acute MI; 1988
  14. COMMIT
    Plavix plus ASA reduces 30 day mortality (0.6% ARR), BB good after MI if pts do not have heart failure/cardiogenic shock; 2005
    Bivalirudin reduced bleeding and death compared to Heparin plus Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in 30 days; increased <24 hr in stent thrombosis with bivalirudin but offsetted between 24 hrs to 30 days; 2009
  16. TACTICS - TIMI 18
    GpIIb/IIIa inhibitor plus invasive strategy in pts with moderate-high risk UA/NSTEMI is better than conservative management; 2001
  17. CURE
    plavix in addition to aspirin in patients with non-STEMI ACS reduces risk of CV death, MI, and CVAs by 20%; 2002
  18. CLARITY - TIMI 28
    In STEMI patients, plavix in addition to aspirin plus thrombolysis reduced CV death, occlusion of infarct-related artery, re-MI and by 20% at 30 days; 2005
  19. ISIS-4
    In pts with suspected or acute MI, Captopril reduced all cause mortality at 5 wks and long term follow up; increased rate of hypotension and/or renal dysfunction in pts with captopril warranting termination; no benefit conferred by magnesium sulfate or isordil; 1995
  20. GISSI 3
    Lisinopril, when given < 24 hrs in pts with acute MI, reduced mortality and severe LV diastolic dysfunction (EF < 35%); 1994
  21. Norwegian Timolol Study
    In pts who survive acute MI, Beta blockers reduce all cause mortality, sudden death, and reinfarction; 1981
  22. Tele-HF
    Follow up with telemonitoring in pts with CHF, doesnot improve mortality or readmission rate; only 55% 6-month pt compliance rate for using the telemonitoring system; 2010
  23. AIRE
    In pts with non severe HF, significant relative reduction in all cause mortality by 23% when ramipril started 3-10 days after MI, benefit noticeable as early as 30 days, reduction in progression to heart failure; no reduction in reinfarction or stroke; 1993
    Carvedilol decreases cardiovascular and all cause mortality in post- infarction pts with EF < 40% ; 2001
  25. MERIT-HF
    Metoprolol XL when used on top of ACE-I reversed ventricular remodeling as shown by decreased LV- EDV and ESV by cardiac MRI and decreases all cause mortality when started in pts with CHF; 2000
  26. SAVE (captopril, 1992), TRACE (trandolapril, 1995), SOLVD (enalapril, 1991)
    ACEI reduces all cause mortality (~ 20%), remodeling, and decreased risk of worsening heart failure (37%) when started 2-10 days after MI, and in pts with CHF (EF < 35%)
  27. VALIENT (valsartan, 22)
    ARBs have mortality equivalent to ACEI; side note: Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers ( ARBs) have increased stimulation of angiotensin type 2 receptors, which have protective effect of decreased remodeling
    enalapril plus candesartan combination was more beneficial in preventing LV dysfunction (reduced ESV and EDV), compared to either drug alone ; 1999
  29. CHARM Overall
    candesartan addition to concurrent BB and/or ACEI therapy - trend toward significance in reducing all cause mortality; significant reduction in CV death or hospital admission for CHF (16%); NNT is 23 in 1 year
    ARB vs. ACEI - In pts with acute MI or heart failure/LV dysfunction, Losartan had no additional benefit compared to captopril, but was better tolerated; 2002
  31. CIBIS II
    in pts with EF < 35% and NYHA class III or IV, B1 blocker bisoprolol significantly reduced all cause mortality, sudden death, and all cause hospitalizations from CHF; 1999
    in pts with severe CHF (class IV), addition to diuretics and digoxin, enalapril reduces mortality by 27% and reduces progression of CHF; no change in sudden death; 1987
  33. V-HEFT (Vasodilator (enalapril vs. hydralazine/nitrate)-Heart Failure Trial)
    pts with CHF on digoxin and diuretic; enalapril has greater reduction mortality compared to combination for at least 2 years, likely due to lower incidence of sudden death; both increase LV EF, combination > enalapril, combination increased O2 consumption at peak exercise at 1 year; 1991
    Irbesartan did not improve mortality or CV outcomes in pts with HF symptoms (Class II-IV) and preserved EF > 45%; Most pts (63%) had HF due to hypertensive heart disease; 2008
    Pts with severe HF (EF < 25%) and Class III-IV, Coreg in addition to diuretic plus ACE/ARB reduces all cause mortality and hospitalization; 2001
  36. RALES
    Aldactone 25 mg in addition to standard therapy reduces mortality and risk of sudden death in pts with severe CHF (EF < 35, Class 3-4); RRR 30%; 1999
    Eplerenone in addition to standard therapy reduces mortality in pts with severe CHF; 2001
    Rosouvastatin reduced primary endpoint (CV death, MI, CVA, unstable angina, revascularization) in women > 60 and men > 50, LDL < 130 - low normal, elevated hsCRP > 2 by 44%, 20% reduction in total mortality, NNT is 95 in 2 yrs, slightly higher incidence of diabetes; 17K total number of patients; 2008 CRP Genetic loci analysis in pts with CAD - mendelian randomization study showed no effect of CRP levels and loci on CAD; JAMA July 2009
  39. TNT
    Intense lipid lowering therapy in pts with CAD (prior MI +/- revascularization, stable angina) - high dose (80 mg) vs. low dose (10 mg) Lipitor - high dose has significantly lowerLDL and total cholesterol levels, and reduced risk of major CV event and death from coronary heart disease and stroke; 2005
  40. A to Z - NSTEMI, STEMI
    2% reduction in CV death, MI and readmission for ACS reduced in pt receiving aggressive zocor (40 initially then 80 mg) vs. placebo then 20 mg zocor after 2 years. Effects occur primarily after 4 months of treatment. Significant decrease in CV death and CHF; 2004
  41. CARDS
    Lipitor 10 mg daily reduces risk of major cardiovascular events including stroke in pts with DM2; relative risk reduction of 37% and benefits emerge after 1 yr on therapy, favorable trend with regards all cause mortality; 2004
  42. CARE
    pravastatin reduces risk of major cardiovascular events in pts (both gender and over and under 60) with average cholesterol and previous MI by 24%; lowers total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides by 20%, 285, and 14% respectively, and increases HDL by 5%; 1996
    pts hyperlipidemia and no hx of MI, pravastatin reduced CV deaths (RRR 30%) and need for revascularization (RRR 37%); 1995
  44. CURVES
    Atorvastatin of all doses is more potent in reducing cholesterol levels than simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin and fluvastatin; 1998
  45. LIPID
    Pravastatin reduced mortality from all causes and CV events in pts with acute MI or unstable angina and cholesterol 155-271; 1998
  46. 4S
    in pts with high cholesterol 210-310 and stable angina or previous MI ( > 6 months), simvastatin reduced all cause mortality, future coronary events and need for CABG/PCI; 1994
  47. PARTNER cohort A
    699 elderly patients (median age 84.1) with severe aortic stenosis were randomized to either TAVI or surgery. TAVI was just as good as surgery in surgery-eligible patients for the primary end point of mortality. More stroke/TIA, vascular complications seen in TAVI group but more major bleeds in surgery group. Better symtomatic improvement in TAVI. 2011
    Early invasive strategy in pts with STEMI has significant reductions in primary outcomes (death, stroke, reinfarction) at 30 days, but at 12 months, reductions were nonsignificant, but trended towards significance as invasive group had less incidence of death, strokes, reinfarction at 12 months; 2010
  49. BARI 2D
    In pts with DM2, stable CAD, no significant difference in mortality between prompt revascularization ( surgery or angioplasty) vs. medical therapy; or between insulin sensitization (metformin, TZDs) vs. insulin provision therapy (sulfonylurea, insulin); 2009
    double dose plavix loading dose plus 150 a day for 1 week then 75 daily is beneficial mainly in subgroup of pts undergoing PCI by reducing stent thrombosis; 2008
  51. GUSTO -IIB
    PTCA has better outcomes than thrombolysis in pts with AMI. lowest 30 day mortality when D2B time < 60 minutes (1%), 60-90 minutes (4%), > 90 minutes (6.5%)
  52. SYNTAX
    PCI vs. CABG in pts with severe CAD - At 1 yr, CABG group had lower rates of major cardiac or cerebrovascular events (12% vs. 18%) and repeat revascularization (6% vs. 14%); however, there was increase in rate of strokes (2.2% vs. 0.6%). Conclusion - CABG should be standard of care in pts with severe 3 vessel or left main disease; 2009
  53. SHOCK
    In pts with cardiogenic shock due to acute MI, early revascularization vs. medical stabilization does not improve 30 day mortality but does improve 6-month and 12-month mortality, especially in pts < 75; 1999
    Compared with optimal medial therapy(OMT), PCI plus OMT in stable CAD did not reduce all cause mortality, non-fatal MI, and other major CV events; however, there was reduction in reoccurrences of angina symptoms in PCI + OMT group; 2008
  55. CARP
    In patients with stable CAD, coronary artery revascularization prior to elective major vascular surgery, s.a. expanding AAA, PVOD of legs, does not improve outcomes; 2004
    PTCA and CABG have similar rates of survival and avoidance of MI and similar long term health care costs; PTCA group had increased rates of recurrent angina and revascularization; nearly 1/4 of PTCA patients required CABG; At 10 year follow up some studies showed that Diabetics and pts > 65 yrs have slightly decreased mortality with CABG; Subset of CABRI trial - pts with multi-vessel or chronically occluded major vessel disease had better outcomes with CABG; 1994, 1994, 1996, 1995, 1998, 1999
  57. SoS (Stent or Surgery)
    PCI is associated with higher rates of repeat revascularization compared to CABG; similar incidence of q-wave MI; fewer deaths in CABG group; 2002
  58. FRISC-II, RITA-3
    At 5 year follow up, in moderate-high risk pts with ACS without ST elevation, early invasive intervention strategy has improved outcomes in terms of death/MI; 2005, 2006
    defibrillator along with BiV ICD (CRT-ICD therapy )is associated with 41% heart failure events when compared to ICD alone in pts with ischemic or nonischemic heart failure (EF < 30%, NYHA Class I or II) and wide QRS > 130ms; most benefit in reducing HF events in pts with QRS > 150; Echo evidence of decreased LV EDV /ESV and improved EF at 1 year; 2009
  60. SCD-HeFT
    Amio vs. placebo, ICD vs. placebo for CHF - In pts with mild-moderate CHF, EF <35, shock only ICD reduced risk of death (ARR 7.2% at 5 years), main effects in pts with Class II symptoms, minimal effect in Class III; Amio showed no benefit in Class II, but reduced survival in Class III; 2005
    CRT reverses remodeling in systolic LV dysfunction, pts with asymptomatic to mild HF or wide QRS, EF < 40 - significant improvement in reverse LV remodeling seen by measures of LVESV and LVEDV along with EF after 6 months in pts with CRT with further improvement overtime; there was significant decrease in morbidity and mortality; 2009
  62. AVID
    ICD is more effective than antiarrythmic drugs in reducing arrhythmia related cardiac deaths. 1999
  63. ACCORD
    increased mortality from any cause with aggressive glycemic control hgba1c < 6 vs. 7-7.9 in diabetic pts, NNH is 95 in 3.5 yrs; 2008
    intensive bp control < 120 vs. < 140 systolic in diabetics did not reduce fatal and nonfatal CV events; 2010
    ivabradine (selective sinus node inhibitor - reduced SA node pacemaker current (If)) addition to standard therapy of BB, etc. in pts with CAD and LVF < 40% showed no reduction in mortality or admissions for new onset of HF, however, in pts with HR > 70 bpm, reduction in fatal and nonfatal MI 36%, coronary revascularization by 30%, and HR reduction by 6 bpm ; 2009
  66. SHIFT
    ivabradine outcomes in chronic HF stage 2 -4, HR > 77 bpm - reduction in hospitalization or CV death from heart failure. Drug side effects, bradycardia and visual side effects; 2010
  67. WHI (Women's Health Initiative)
    post menopausal women on combined hormonal therapy is associated with increased risk of CAD, PE, CVA and invasive breast cancer but decreased risk of hip fractures and colorectal cancer; absolute risk excess was 19 per 100,000 person-years; 2002
  68. VALUE
    Valsartan vs. Amlodipine in HTN control: Amlodipine has better HTN control in first few months, but equal efficacy at 6 years; Valsartan group had greater incidence of MI and Amlodipine group had greater incidence of new onset diabetes; 2004
  69. UKPDS (HTN in Diabetes study)
    BP control < 150/85 in pts with HTN and Diabetes with ACEI or BB, plus additional meds if needed, reduces risk of diabetic related complications and death related to diabetes (MI, PV0D, renal disease, CVA, sudden death) along with decrease in progression of neuropathy and retinopathy; 1998
    ARB vs. ARB plus ACEI - Pts with CAD/MI high risk diabetes, without heart failure - Telmisartan is equally efficacious as ramipril, but better tolerated, yet had higher rates of hypotension; combination therapy conferred no benefit in preventing cardiovascular mortality/morbidity; 2008
  71. HOPE
    in patients with known vascular disease or diabetes plus at least one cardiovascular risk factor, ramipril reduced risk of death, MI, stroke, and revascularization, along with diabetic complications; new diagnosis of diabetes significantly lower in ramipril group; Vitamin E did not lower the risk of CAD; 2000
  72. GISSI-HF
    polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 1g/day associated with decreased mortality and hospital admission in pts with symptomatic HF( Class II-IV); NNT 56 over 4 years; Rosouvastatin in pts with symptomatic HF does not improve mortality or hospital admissions, etc. it may be prescribed for pts with indication for statin i.e. CAD, but not just for HF; 2008
  73. ALLHAT
    thiazide vs. CCB vs. ACEI - No significant difference in all cause mortality, fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHF). Thiazide type diuretics (chlorthalidone) are superior at preventing 1 or more forms of CVD and should be first line of therapy; amlodipine higher 6 yr rate of HF and lisinopril had higher 6 yr rates of CHD, stroke, and HF; 2002
  74. Framingham Heart study
    high levels of LDL, Hypertension, cigarette smoking, obesity, elevated blood sugar levels, stress, lack of exercise, menopause, ECG abnormalities increase risk of coronary heart disease; 1984
  75. LIFE
    Losartan vs. atenolol - losartan shows reduction in CV deaths (MI and stroke) compared to atenolol, and losartan in better tolerated with similar BP reduction; reduction in new onset diabetes in losartan group; 2002
    Losartan was not superior to captopril, only better tolerated. 1997, 2000
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CARDS Trials flashcards.txt
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