1. Seven major word classes
    • noun
    • verb
    • adjective
    • adverb
    • preposition
    • conjunction
    • determiner

    The first six are traditionally referred to as "parts of speech."
  2. 1 - Noun
    word that is a person, place, thing or idea
  3. 2 - Verb
    Used to express action
  4. 3 - Adjective
    • Modifies the noun
    • Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
    • The inexpensive, comfortable shoes. (Coordinated)
    • That's an interesting idea. (Attributive)
    • That idea is wicked. (Predicative)
    • The good, the bad, and the ugly. (Substantive)
    • Tell me something interesting. (Post-positive)
  5. 4 - Adverb
    • Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb
    • Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates

    • The waves came in quickly over the rocks.
    • I found the film incredibly dull.
    • The meeting went well, and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome!
    • Crabs are known for walking sideways.
    • I often have eggs for breakfast.
    • However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.
  6. 5 - Preposition
    • Notes the relation of a noun to an action or a thing - preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence
    • Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolate

    • as a modifier to a verb:
    • sleep throughout the winter
    • danced atop the tables for hours
    • as a modifier to a noun:
    • the weather in April
    • cheese from France with live bacteria
    • as the complement of a verb:
    • insist on staying home
    • dispose of unwanted items
    • as the complement of a noun:
    • a thirst for revenge
    • an amendment to the constitution
    • as the complement of an adjective or adverb:
    • attentive to their needs
    • separately from its neighbors
    • as the complement of another preposition:
    • until after supper
    • from beneath the bed
  7. Prepositional phrase
    group of words beginning with a preposition

    Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates

    • She is on the computer.
    • TJ could hear her across the room.
    • David walked down the ramp.
    • They walked to their school.
    • Dylan ate in the kitchen.
  8. Prepostional Phrase (2)
    • A prepositional phrase should not be confused with the sequence formed by the particle and the direct object of a phrasal verb, as in turn on the light. This sequence is structurally distinct from a prepositional phrase. In this case, "on" and "the light" do not form a unit; they combine independently with the verb "turn".
    • Another common point of confusion is that the word "to" may appear either as a preposition or as a verbal particle in infinitive verb phrases, such as "to run for president".
  9. Prepositional phrases generally act as
    • complements and adjuncts of noun phrases and verb phrases.
    • The man from China was enjoying his noodles. (Adjunct of a noun phrase)
    • She ran under him. (Adjunct of a verb phrase)
    • He gave money to the cause. (Oblique complement of a verb phrase)
    • A student of physics. (Complement of a noun phrase)
    • She argued with him. (Complement of a verb phrase)
  10. 6 -Conjunction
    Connects two words, phrases or clauses together

    • and: used to connect words, phrases, or clauses
    • but: indicates a contrast or exception
    • or: presents opinions, alternates, or substitutes for ideas of equal importance
    • nor: presents an alternate negative idea
  11. Conjunctions Correlative
    • are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. English examples include both…and, [n]either…[n]or, and not [only]…but [also], whether... or.
    • Examples:
    • Either you do your work, or prepare for a trip to the office.
    • Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant
    • Neither the basketball team, nor the football team is doing well
    • Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well
    • Whether you choose to stay, or go is your decision.
    • Either you get As, or you do not go to school.
  12. Conjunctions Subordinating
    • also called subordinators,
    • are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause.
    • after
    • although
    • as much as
    • as long as
    • as soon as
    • because
    • before
    • if
    • in order that
    • lest
    • since
    • so that
    • than
    • that
    • though
    • unless
    • until
    • when
    • whenever
    • where
    • wherever
    • whether
    • while
  13. 7 - Determiner
    noun-modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun-phrase in the context, including quantity, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This function is usually performed by

    • The girl is a student.
    • I've lost my keys.
    • Some folks get all the luck.
    • Which book is that?
    • I only had two drinks.
    • I'll take that one.
    • Both windows were open.
  14. Pronoun
    • takes place of a noun.
    • Lisa gave the coat to Phil.
    • All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: She gave it to him.
    • The replaced phrase is called the antecedent of the pronoun
    • I love you
    • That reminds me of something.
    • He looked at them.
    • Take it or leave it
    • Who says so?
  15. Personal pronouns
    stand in place of the names of people or things

    • first-person singular (I)
    • first-person plural (we)
    • second-person singular and plural (you)
    • third-person singular human or animate male (he)
    • third-person singular human or animate female (she)
    • third-person singular inanimate (it)
    • third-person plural (they)
  16. Subjective pronouns
    • are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause. subjective pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, what, who, and they
    • English example: I like to eat chips, but she does not
  17. An objective pronoun
    • in grammar functions as the target of a verb,
    • as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb.
    • In layman's terms, the target is the object on which the verb acts, and the initiator is the subject performing the action.
    • "The dog chased the cat", the dog is the initiator (or subject), and the cat is the target (or object).
  18. A prepositional pronoun .
    personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition and come after a preposition. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Anna and Maria looked at him
  19. Possessive pronouns
    • are used to indicate possession or ownership
    • Those clothes are mine
  20. Clause
    Group of words that contains a subject and a verb

    - Independent - main idea & can stand by itself

    - Dependent - subject and & verb (but can't stand by itself)
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