Seven major word classes
The first six are traditionally referred to as "parts of speech."
1 - Noun
word that is a person, place, thing or idea
2 - Verb
Used to express action
3 - Adjective
- Modifies the noun
- Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
- The inexpensive, comfortable shoes. (Coordinated)
- That's an interesting idea. (Attributive)
- That idea is wicked. (Predicative)
- The good, the bad, and the ugly. (Substantive)
- Tell me something interesting. (Post-positive)
4 - Adverb
- Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb
- Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
- The waves came in quickly over the rocks.
- I found the film incredibly dull.
- The meeting went well, and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome!
- Crabs are known for walking sideways.
- I often have eggs for breakfast.
- However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.
5 - Preposition
- Notes the relation of a noun to an action or a thing - preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence
- Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolate
- as a modifier to a verb:
- sleep throughout the winter
- danced atop the tables for hours
- as a modifier to a noun:
- the weather in April
- cheese from France with live bacteria
- as the complement of a verb:
- insist on staying home
- dispose of unwanted items
- as the complement of a noun:
- a thirst for revenge
- an amendment to the constitution
- as the complement of an adjective or adverb:
- attentive to their needs
- separately from its neighbors
- as the complement of another preposition:
- until after supper
- from beneath the bed
group of words beginning with a preposition
Ex: Sue quickly opened the big box of chocolates
- She is on the computer.
- TJ could hear her across the room.
- David walked down the ramp.
- They walked to their school.
- Dylan ate in the kitchen.
Prepostional Phrase (2)
- A prepositional phrase should not be confused with the sequence formed by the particle and the direct object of a phrasal verb, as in turn on the light. This sequence is structurally distinct from a prepositional phrase. In this case, "on" and "the light" do not form a unit; they combine independently with the verb "turn".
- Another common point of confusion is that the word "to" may appear either as a preposition or as a verbal particle in infinitive verb phrases, such as "to run for president".
Prepositional phrases generally act as
- complements and adjuncts of noun phrases and verb phrases.
- The man from China was enjoying his noodles. (Adjunct of a noun phrase)
- She ran under him. (Adjunct of a verb phrase)
- He gave money to the cause. (Oblique complement of a verb phrase)
- A student of physics. (Complement of a noun phrase)
- She argued with him. (Complement of a verb phrase)
Connects two words, phrases or clauses together
- and: used to connect words, phrases, or clauses
- but: indicates a contrast or exception
- or: presents opinions, alternates, or substitutes for ideas of equal importance
- nor: presents an alternate negative idea
- are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. English examples include both…and, [n]either…[n]or, and not [only]…but [also], whether... or.
- • Either you do your work, or prepare for a trip to the office.
- • Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant
- • Neither the basketball team, nor the football team is doing well
- • Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well
- • Whether you choose to stay, or go is your decision.
- • Either you get As, or you do not go to school.
- also called subordinators,
- are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause.
- as much as
- as long as
- as soon as
- in order that
- so that
7 - Determiner
noun-modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun-phrase in the context, including quantity, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This function is usually performed by
- The girl is a student.
- I've lost my keys.
- Some folks get all the luck.
- Which book is that?
- I only had two drinks.
- I'll take that one.
- Both windows were open.
- takes place of a noun.
- Lisa gave the coat to Phil.
- All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: She gave it to him.
- The replaced phrase is called the antecedent of the pronoun
- I love you
- That reminds me of something.
- He looked at them.
- Take it or leave it
- Who says so?
stand in place of the names of people or things
- first-person singular (I)
- first-person plural (we)
- second-person singular and plural (you)
- third-person singular human or animate male (he)
- third-person singular human or animate female (she)
- third-person singular inanimate (it)
- third-person plural (they)
- are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause. subjective pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, what, who, and they
- English example: I like to eat chips, but she does not
An objective pronoun
- in grammar functions as the target of a verb,
- as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb.
- In layman's terms, the target is the object on which the verb acts, and the initiator is the subject performing the action.
- "The dog chased the cat", the dog is the initiator (or subject), and the cat is the target (or object).
A prepositional pronoun .
personal pronoun that is used as the object of a preposition and come after a preposition. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Anna and Maria looked at him
- are used to indicate possession or ownership
- Those clothes are mine
Group of words that contains a subject and a verb
- Independent - main idea & can stand by itself
- Dependent - subject and & verb (but can't stand by itself)