1. Most clients require ____________ in order to properly perform any type of cardiorespiratory training.
    Flexibility training
  2. Flexibility training may decrease the occurrences of...
    • muscle imbalances
    • joint dysfunctions
    • overuse injuries
  3. The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint
  4. Capability to be elongated or stretched
  5. The combination of flexibility and the nervous systems ability to control this range of motion efficiently
    Dynamic range of motion
  6. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
    Neuromuscular efficiency
  7. The ability of the nervous system to properly recruit the correct muscles to produce force (concentrically), reduce force (eccentrically) and dynamically stabilize (isometrically) the body's structure in all three planes of motion.
    Neuromuscular efficiency
  8. Flexibility requires extensibility, which requires dynamic range of motion, which requires neuromuscular efficiency. This entire chain is referred to as ___________.
    Dynamic functional flexibility
  9. Dynamic functional flexibility is obtained by:
    Taking an integrated approach toward flexibility training which achieves optimum soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion.
  10. Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances that lead to decreased neuromuscular efficiency and tissue overload.
    Postural distortion patterns
  11. The process in which the kinetic chain seeks the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
    relative flexibility
  12. Widening of the stance and externally rotating the feet to decrease the amount of dorsiflexion at the ankle to perform a squat is an example of ...
    Relative Flexibility
  13. when an overhead shoulder press is performed and an excessive lumbar extension is seen this is a result of
    tight latissimus dorsi muscles
  14. Caused by abnormal structural and functional efficiency of the kinetic chain (altered length-tension relationships, force couple relationships and arthrokinematics) and are alterations in the lengths of muscles surrounding a given joint
    Muscle imbalances
  15. Muscle imbalances can be caused by:
    • postural stress
    • emotional duress
    • repetitive movement
    • cumulative trauma
    • poor training technique
    • lack of core strength
    • lack of neuromuscular control (efficiency)
  16. Muscle imbalances result from
    • altered reciprocal inhibition
    • synergistic dominance
    • arthrokinetic dysfunction
    • neuromuscular efficiency
  17. The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional (decreases neural drive of) antagonist
    Altered reciprocal inhibition
  18. A tight psoas (hip flexor) decreasing the neural drive of the gluteus maximus (hip extensor) is an example of
    Altered reciprocal inhibition
  19. The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover
    Synergistic dominance
  20. when the psoas are tight it leads to reciprocal inhibition of the gluteus maximus. The result is increased force output of the synergists for hip extension to compensate for the weakened gluteus maximus which include:
    • hamstrings
    • adductor magnus
    • erector spinae
  21. Motion of the joints
  22. A biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfunction leading to altered joint motion
    Arthrokinematic dysfunction
  23. Located in the muscles and tendons, these help to determine muscle balance and imbalance. these include the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organ.
  24. These are the major sensory organ of the muscle and are composed of microscopic fiblers that lie parallel to the muscle fiber. They are sensitive to change in length and rate of length change.
    Muscle spindles
  25. An individual whose knees adduct and internally rotate during an overhead squat would need not to stretch the ___________ but instead stretch the _________.
    • underactive gluteus medius (hip abductor and external roator)
    • adductor complex which is overactive
  26. Individuals with protracted (rounded) shoulders need not stretch the _____ and the _____ (underactive) but rather stretch the overactive ________ that are pulling them into the rounded position
    • rhomboids and middle and lower trapezius
    • pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and latissimus dorsi
  27. Located within the musculotendious junction (the point where the muscle and tendon meet) this organ is sensitive to changes in muscular tension and the rate of tension change
    Golgi tendon
  28. The process when neural impulses that sense tension is greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
    Autogenic Inhibition
  29. Benefits of flexibility training
    • improving muscle imbalances
    • increasing joint range of motion and extensibility
    • relieving excessive tension of muscles and joint stress
    • improving neuromuscular efficiency and function
  30. Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stress on the body. Not necessarily related to exercise, ie could be working on a computer.
    Pattern Overload
  31. Cumulative injury cycle
    Tissue trauma > inflammation>muscle spasm>adhesions>altered nueromuscular control >muscle imbalance > tissue trauma (cycle)
  32. States that soft tissue models (rebuilds) along the lines of stress with an inelastic collagen matrix that forms in a random fashion
    Davis's law
  33. Three phases of flexibility training:
    • Corrective
    • Active
    • Functional
  34. A phase of flexibility designed to improve muscular imbalances and altered joint motion. Uses principle of autogenic inhibition.
    Corrective flexibility
  35. This form of flexibility is appropriate at the stabilization level of OPT (phase 1). Includes self-myofascial release (foam roll).
    Corrective Flexibility
  36. A phase of flexibility designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase meuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition.
    Active flexibility
  37. This form of flexibility uses self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching techniques. Appropriate for the Strength Level (phase 2,3,4) of OPT
    Active flexibility
  38. Example of this flexibility phase includes a supine straight leg raise, using the hip flexor and quads to raise the leg and hold it unsupported while the antagonist hamstring group is stretched
    Active Flexibility
  39. This phase of flexibility is integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through the full range of motion. Movement without compensations.
    Functional Flexibility
  40. This phase of flexibility uses self-myofascial release techniques and dynamic flexibility. Appropriate for Power Level (phase 5).
    Functional flexibility
  41. When a person is using self-myofascial release once a tender spot is found indicating hypertonicity what is the procedure?
    Sustain pressure for on that spot for a minimum of 20-30 seconds.
  42. When is a good time for self-myofascial release?
    Before static stretching for postural distortion patterns or before activity, or during cool down.
  43. The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20 seconds.
    Static stretching
  44. Static stretching should be used...
    to decrease the muscle spindle activity of a tight muscle before and after activity
  45. Examples of static stretching
    • gastrocnemius stretch
    • kneeling hip flexor stretch
    • standing adductor stretch
    • pectoral wall stretch
  46. The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
    Active-isolated stretching
  47. An example is active supine biceps femoris stretch that is performed for 5-10 repetitions of each stretch and are held for 1-2 seconds each.
    Active isolated stretching
  48. The active extension of a muscle that uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint throught the full available range of motion
    Dynamic stretching
  49. An example of this technique is performing one set of a prisoner squat for 10 repetions
    Dynamic Stretching
  50. Example of foam roll and static stretch technique and a strengthening exercise for knees moving inward
    • Adductors, TFL band
    • Tube walking
  51. Example of a foam roll and static stretch technique and a strengthening exercise for feet turning out
    • Gastrocnemius/soleus, biceps femoris (short head)
    • single leg balance reach
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