Nutrition .txt

  1. Protein
    -2 classes
    • Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
    • -body uses 20 amino acids to build proteins
    • -Essential and non-essential: Essential (8) can't be manufactured in body in amounts necessary.
  2. Protein
    -fates of amino acids once in bloodstream
    -protein synthesis (building and repairing tissues or structures), immediate energy, or potential energy (fat storage)

    -Immediate energy: If carb or total energy intake is too low, body will use amino acids for energy. Amino acids get stripped of amine group, and remaining carbon skeleton can be used for production of glucose or ketones used for energy

    -Potential energy: If protein intake exceeds the needs for synthesis and energy needs are met, then carbon fragments are stored as fat
  3. BV (biologic Value)
    -Measure of protein quality- how well a protein satisfies the bodies essential amino acid needs
  4. Factors effecting protein requirements
    -Exercise- increases the oxidation of amino acids as well as the rate of protein turnover in lean body mass during recovery.

    -Caloric Intake- If not enough carb and fat intake, protein used for energy

    -Negative Energy Balance- amino acids used to assist in energy production (Gluconeogenisis)

    -Bodybuilder -
  5. Carbohydrates
    Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (sugars, starches, and celuloses) which make up a large portion of animal foods.

    • -Sugars (simple) (Any monosaccharide or disaccharide)
    • -Starches (complex)
    • -Fiber
  6. Monosaccharides
    Monosaccharide is a single sugar unit, many connected to make starches (the storage form of carbs in plants) and glycogen (storage form of carbs in humans).

    • -Glucose (blood sugar)
    • -Fructose (fruit sugar)
    • -Galactose
  7. Disaccharides
    -Two sugar unit

    • -Sucrose (common sugar)
    • -Lactose (milk sugar)
    • -Maltose
  8. Glycemic Index
    Rate at which ingested carbs raise blood sugar and it's accompanying effect on insulin release

    -Determined when the food is consumed by itself and on an empty stomach
  9. Fiber
    • -More fiber= less incidence of heart disease and cancer
    • -More satiety
    • -Prevents constipation and irritable bowels
    • -Good intestinal modality
    • -Lowers risk of colon cancer
    • -Regulated body's absorption of glucose
  10. Lipids
    • -Triglycerides (fats and oils) 95% of lipids in foods and 99% of lipids stored in body
    • -Phospholipids
    • -Sterols

    • -Cellular membrane structure and function
    • -Regulation and excretion of nutrients in cells
    • -Surround, protect, and hold organs in place
    • -Body insulation
    • -Prolongs stomachs digestive process by slowing stomachs secretion of hydrochloric acid
    • -Initiates release of hormone cholecystokinin which contributes to satiety
  11. Fatty Acids
    -2 types
    • Unsaturated:
    • -Monounsaturated= 1 double bond in carbon chain

    • -Polyunsaturated= More than 1 point of unsaturatio
    • Provide essential fatty acids (fats not manufactured in body but essential for health and function)
  12. Thermic Effect
    -Rise in metabolic rate that occurs after food it ingested
  13. Water
    -body benefits
    • -Endocrine function improvement
    • -Alleviated fluid retention
    • -Liver function improvement, increasing percentage of fat used for energy
    • -Appetite decrease
    • -Better metabolic function
    • -Nutrient distribution improved
    • -Body temp regulation improved
    • -Blood volume maintained
Card Set
Nutrition .txt